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projekte:meteo:complexterrainwindfield

Prognostic modeling of the boundary layer windfield

Hintergrund der Windfeldmodellierung ist der Bedarf an verlässlichen und hoch aufgelösten Windfeldern in der bodennahen Atmosphäre. Die Windkomponenten werden für eine Reihe von Anwendungen benötigt. In der lufthygienische Fragestellungen z.B. Schadstoffausbreitungsvektoren, bioklimatologische Frage wie den Pollenflug, für eine bessere Abschätzung von Schneeverfrachtungen im Gebirge und z.B für die Einschätzung der Flugbedingungen für Drachen- und Gleitschirmflieger. Natürlich können prognostische Windfelder nicht idealtypisch berechnet werden da sie unmittelbar Teildes Wettergeschehens darstellen. In Folge muss also eine operationelle prognostische Wettermodellierung mit Fokus auf die Grundschicht vorgenommen werden.

Motivation und Hintergrund

Die hohe Rhön mit der Wasserkuppe (ca. 950 m) als höchster Erhebung bietet sich aus verschiedenen Gründen für einen ersten Test realitätsnahe Modellierung und Prognose des Grundschicht-Windfeldes im Rahmen des Projekts "Regionale numerische Wetterprognose mit ARPS selbst gemacht" an. Sie ist topographisch nahezu idealtypisch geformt und liegt exponiert in der synoptischen Ausströmung mit der Wasserkuppe im Zentrum. Gleichzeitig sind die klimatologischen Bedingungen in der Rhön deutlich kontinentaler. Die Wasserkuppe ist nahezu optimal für eine derartige Untersuchung. Neben den Ausflüglern ist die Hohe Rhön hochfrequentiert von Luftsportlern aller Art, da dort ein Zentrum des Segel-, Modell und Gleitschirmflugs ist. Zusätzlich unterhält der DWD dort eine der wenigen “bemannten” Wetterstationen.

Fragestellung und Hypothese

Es gilt die Arbeitshypothese, dass mit ARPS eine hochaufgelöste und verbesserte operationelle Vorhersage der Grundschichtwetterphänomene möglich ist.

Modellsetup

Untersuchungsraum und Domaingrößen

Für die Wasserkuppe wird 1 Domain gerechnet.

  • Domain 1 (äussere Domain 219*219*50 1km)

Die Domänen sind vornehmlich auf die verfügbare Prozessorzahl (64 CPUs) und die erreichbare Prognosezeit (ca. 1h Rechenzeit auf 6 h prognostizierte Zeit) angepasst. Somit können mit 12 h Rechenzeit 48 h Vorhersagen berechnet werden.

Daten

ARPS kann von zahlreichen externen Initialisierungsdaten Gebrauch machen. Derzeit dürfte der verwendete 0.25° Grad aufgelöste GFS-Datensatz die weltweit besten frei verfügbaren Prognosen liefern. In die Modellierung wird das Bodenmodell von ARPS integriert. Daher ist es notwendig Landnutzung und Bodentypen räumlich verfügbar zu machen. Zusätzlich werden für Europa die hochauflösenden Geländemodelldaten aus der SRTM Mission in der Version 4.1 verwendet.

  • SRTM V4.1 Daten
  • GFS 0.25 Grad Daten
  • ARPS soiltype_top_30s
  • ARPS landuse_30s

Parametrisierung Domäne

Die Parametrisierung der Modelläufe ist wie üblich die Hauptschwierigkeit. Abhängig von Domaingröße, horizontaler und vertikaler Auflösung und vor allem in der Intialphase dem Gelände und der Bodeninformationen, ist dies für jede Domain/Datenkombination ein Try und Error Prozess der vor dem Hintergrund physikalisch sinnvoller Parameter-Kombinationen durchgeführt werden muss.

Hier das arps.input file mit allen Einstellungen:

!
!     ##################################################################
!     ##################################################################
!     ######                                                      ######
!     ######       INPUT FILE FOR ARPS IN NAMELIST FORMAT         ######
!     ######                                                      ######
!     ######                 ( Version ARPS5.3 )                  ######
!     ######                                                      ######
!     ######                     Developed by                     ######
!     ######     Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms     ######
!     ######                University of Oklahoma                ######
!     ######                                                      ######
!     ##################################################################
!     ##################################################################
!
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  This file contains the input parameters in the NAMELIST format.
!  for ARPS version 5.3 or later and for ADAS, 3DVAR, EXT2ARPS and ARPSSFC
!  programs.
!
!  For ARPS official release, this file is configured for a
!  supercell storm simulation, similar (but not identifal) to the one
!  described in the validation chapter of ARPS User's Guide.
!
!  Note that only lines between &NAMELIST_NAME and / are read as the
!  input data, and there must be a blank space in front of the '&' sign.
!  Comments can be written between these data blocks except on machines
!  such as the Cray VPP (see below).
!
!  We are using '!' in the first column of comment line only to distinguish
!  them from the data statement. Certain compilers, include Cray F90, does
!  not allow non-blank statements/comments between namelist blocks.
!  They need to be stripped out first. A command to do so using sed is
!  given near the end of makearps).
!                                                                     =*
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! Author:
!
! Ming Xue (10/1/1990)
!
! Modification history:
!
! 10/1/1993 (Ming Xue & Adwait Sathye)
!   Converted to namelist format.
!
! 04/07/94 (Yuhe Liu)
!
!   Added surface model flag, data input flags for soil and vegetation
!   data and initial values, length of time step for surface model
!   integration, and user specified surface data and variables to the
!   namelist &soil_ebm.
!
! 04/26/94 (Ming Xue)
!
!   Added comments and a number of additional parameters.
!
! 01/13/95 (Alan Shapiro, Steven Lazarus, Yvette Richardson)
!
!   Documentation clean-up.
!
! 01/28/95 (Gene Bassett)030000
!
!   Added namelist input for arpsr2h (gridinit).
!
! 02/07/1995 (Yuhe Liu)
!
!   Added a new input parameter, veg0, to the namelist, &soil_ebm.
!
! 05/25/1995 (Alan Shapiro)
!
!   Documentation clean-up.
!
! 01/31/1996 (V. Wong and X. Song)
!
!   Added a new input parameter, qpfgfrq, to the namelist, &microphysics.
!
! 02/05/1996 (Donghai Wang and Yuhe Liu)
!
!   Added two parameters to control the calculation related to map
!   projection factor.
!
! 03/26/1996 (Yuhe Liu)
!
!   Added a namelist &radiation
!
! 04/02/1996 (Donghai Wang, X. Song and M. Xue)
!
!   Added two parameters to control the implicit treatment for
!   the vertical mixing.
!
! 05/07/1996 (Donghai Wang and M. Xue)
!
!   Added a new option for Rayleigh damping.
!
! 03/27/1997 (Yuhe Liu)
!
!   A new namelist, arpsagr, was added for ARPS Adaptive Grid
!   Refinement (AGR).
!
! 07/29/97  (Dan Weber)
!
!   Added fftopt for use with the tbc=4 upper radiation condition.
!
! 10/21/97 (Donghai Wang)
!   Added two options,rhofctopt for using total density (rho) in the
!   calculation of the pressure gradient force terms, and buoy2nd
!   for the second order terms in the linerized buoyancy terms.
!
! 04/15/98 (Donghai Wang)
!   Added a new option for Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme to feed back
!   the convectively generated rainwater into grid-resolved rainwater
!   (or snow) fields.
!
! 2000/04/17 (Gene Bassett)
!   Added dimensions & message_passing namelist blocks for use with F90.
!
! 2001/11/09 (M. Xue, D. Weber, X. Jin)
!   Added cmix_opt for use with the monotonic computational mixing
!   option.
!
! 2002/03/20 (M. Xue, D. Weber, X. Jin)
!   Added impfallopt, fallvalpha and fallvbeta for use with the
!   vertically implicit fall velocity scheme.
!
! 05/18/2002 (J. Brotzge, D. Weber)
!   Added options, variables for OUSoil scheme.
!
! 08/27/2002 (D. Weber and E. Kemp)
!   Added fallopt option for using different fall velocity formulations
!   and coefficients.
!
! 07/17/03  (J. Brotzge)
!   Cleaned up documentation for soil scheme options.
!
! 10/10/2003 (M. Xue)
!   Removed fallvbeta from namelist and code, because
!   fallvbeta is alwassy 1-fallvalpha.
!
! 09/24/2006 (M. Tong)
!   Added option 'crdorgnopt'
!
! 01/15/2009 (K. Brewster)
!   Documentation clean-up and correction pass.
!
!---------------------------------------------------------------------=*
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  DIMENSIONS  Namelist for dimensions.
!
!     nx, ny, nz: Dimensions of computational grid.
!                 When run in distributed memory mode on MPP using MPI,
!                 they represent of the size of the global domain when
!                 entered through this input file, but will later be
!                 redefined as the dimensions of the decomposed the
!                 subdomains (patches) inside the code.
!
!                 Given nx, ny and nz, the physical domain size will be
!                 xl=(nx-3)*dx by yl=(ny-3)*dy by zh=(nz-3)*dz.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &grid_dims
   nx   = 219,
   ny   = 219,
   nz   = 50,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  MESSAGE_PASSING  Namelist for message passing version of the ARPS.
!                   These values are ignored for the non-MP version.
!
!  nproc_x      Number of processors in the x-direction.
!  nproc_y      Number of processors in the y-direction.
!               Note that if (nx-3)/nproc_x or (ny-3)/nproc_y are not
!               integers, ny & ny will be increased so that they are.
!
!  max_fopen    Maximum number of files allowed open when reading or
!               writing, a number smaller than the number of processors
!               can be used if dictated by the computing platform.
!               However, the system will set max_fopen = number of
!               processors automatically when needing to read in a sounding
!               file for initopt=1.
!
!  nproc_x = 6,out  Number of patches in x-direction for output
!  nproc_y = 6,out  Number of patches in y-direction for output
!
!        NOTE:  If those parameters are specified, they must be multiples of
!               nproc_x/nproc_y respectively. Furthermore, the grid sizes of
!               each output patch must also be an integer, i.e.
!               MOD((nx-3),nproc_x = 6,out) = 0 and MOD((ny-3),nproc_y = 6,out) = 0.
!               Currently, it is only supported with HDF4 and netCDF format.
!
!               To enable fine tuning with ARPS data sets, you should also
!               specify special value with the following. Otherwise, these
!               two parameters will not take effect.
!
!                 hdmpfmt > 100 for ARPS history files, for example, 103, 107
!                 exbcdmp > 100 for ARPS lateral boundary files
!                 soildmp > 100 for soil data files,
!
!               Currently, only the above three datasets and data format
!               103 and 107 are supported.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &message_passing
   nproc_x = 6,
   nproc_y = 6,
 
   max_fopen = 49,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  COMMENT_LINES Comments
!
!  nocmnt     Number of comment lines (max=50 comments)
!  cmnt       Comments (max length=80 characters)
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &comment_lines
   nocmnt  = 3,
   cmnt(1) = 'ARPS 5.3.3',
   cmnt(2) = 'Run Wasserkuppe',
   cmnt(3) = 'GFS 0.25 External Boundaries',
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  runname, a string of up to 80 characters long, is used to identify
!  this job.
!
!  The first 6 characters, or the characters before either a blank space or
!  comma, will be used to construct output file names. Not more than 6
!  characters are used to define runname. Thisinifile character string will be
!  printed on plots produced by ARPSPLT.
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &jobname
   runname = 'waku_d1_ARP',
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  The model can be run in 3D, 2D x-z plane, 2D y-z plane or 1D vertical
!  column mode. Please set
!
!  runmod   = 1 for 3-D run;
!             2 for 2-D xz plane run;
!             3 for 2-D yz plane run;
!             4 for vertical 1-D run.
!  hxopt    Option to calculate prior observations for ARPS EnKF.
!          = 0, disable
!          = 1, enable
!  memid        The EnKF ensemble member's id
!  hx_interval  Time interval for conducting hx calculation(unit:sec)
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &model_configuration
   runmod = 1,
   hxopt = 0,
     memid = 1,
     hx_interval = 30,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  initime = 'yyyy-mm-dd.hr:mn:se', UTC(GMT) date/time. yyyy is a
!                                   4-digit integer for year, and mm, dd,
!                                   hr, mn, and se are 2-digit integers
!                                   for month, day, hour, minute, and
!                                   second, respectively. For example,
!                                   20:30Z, Dec. 19, 1994 would be
!                                   represented as: 1994-12-19.20:30:00
!
!  initopt   Model initialization option.
!          = 1, initialize using analytic functions
!          = 2, initialize from a restart file
!          = 3, initialize from an external data set. See inifmt below
!               for available history data formats.
!          = 4, read in the restart file then overwrite the variables at
!               the current time level using those in history file.
!
!  timeopt   Options to check the consistency of user specified time
!            (initime and tstart) with the time of history data which is
!            used to start up ARPS (initopt=3)
!          = 1, warning on inconsistence and continue using initime and tstart
!          = 2, warning on inconsistence and continue using data time
!          = else, warning on inconsistence and stop, default
!
!  inibasopt Initialization option for base state fields.
!          = 1  external sounding
!          = 2, isentropic atmosphere
!          = 3, isothermal atmosphere
!          = 4, constant static stability atmosphere
!          = 5, analytic thermodynamic sounding
!               (Weisman and Klemp 1982, MWR)
!          = 6, constant density, pot. tem. and hydrostatic base state
!
!          For options 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 the wind profile is specified
!          using option viniopt.
!          Note: base state fields initialized this way will be
!          overwritten for initopt = 2 or 3, the base state
!          variables are contained in the restart or external data file.
!          Note: if inibasopt = 4, then user must specify the static
!          stability in subroutine INIBASE.
!
!  viniopt   Initialization option for base state wind fields.
!          = 1, user specified constant ubar0 and vbar0;
!          = 2, user specified wind profile.
!          = 3, Weisman-Klemp wind profile.
!          Option viniopt will be used if option inibasopt = 2, 3, 4, or 5.
!          Note: if option 2 is chosen, the user must specify the
!          desired wind profile in subroutine INIBASE.
!
!  zshear  Height parameter of Weisman-Klemp (inibasopt=5 and viniopt=3)
!          wind profile (m)
!
!  ubar0    Constant base state wind in x-direction when
!           inibasopt .ne. 1 and viniopt = 1.
!           It is the amplitude of the Weisman-Klemp wind profile
!           when inibasopt=5 and viniopt = 3.
!
!  vbar0    Constant base state wind in y-direction when
!           inibasopt .ne. 1 and viniopt = 1.
!           It is the amplitude of the Weisman-Klemp wind profile
!           when inibasopt=5 and viniopt = 3.
!
!  Parameters for Weisman & Klemp (MWR 1982) sounding (inibasopt=5):
!
!   pttrop    Tropopause pot.temp. for Weisman-Klemp sounding (K)
!   ttrop     Tropopause temp.(K)
!   ptground  Groud surface potential temperature (K)
!   htrop     Tropopause height (m)
!   qvmixed   Mixed layer mixing ratio  (kg/kg)
!   rhmixed   Upper limit of relative humidity
!   mixtop    Mixed layer height (m)
!
!  soilinitopt   Iterative soil initialization option
!          = 0, no iteration
!          = 1, integrate soil model using the initial atmospheric
!               forcing.
!
!  soiltintv  Time interval for the initial integration of soil model
!
!  pt0opt    Initial potential temperature perturbation option for initopt=1.
!          = 0, no initial perturbation
!          = 1, bubble-shaped initial perturbation
!          = 2, random initial perturbation
!          = 3, symmetric random initial perturbation
!
!          WARNING: Symmetric random initial perturbation requires two large
!                   global arrays for message passing.
!                   Use this option with caution in MPI mode.
!
!          = 4, Skamarock and Klemp (1994) initial perturbation.
!          = 5, Soup-can shaped perturbation (note: when used to test advection
!               one should also set buoyopt=0 to turn off buoyancy).
!          = 6, a bubble specified in terms of temperature perturbation
!               instead of PT. The amplitude of T pert. is prpert0.
!
!  Note, for options 1 and 6, multiple thermal bubbles are now allowed.
!  Each of the following parameters now has an index for each bubble.
!
!  ptpert0  Magnitude of initial potential temperature perturbation (K).
!  pt0radx  Bubble radius in x-direction.
!  pt0rady  Bubble radius in y-direction.
!  pt0radz  Bubble radius in z-direction.
!  pt0ctrx  x coordinate of bubble center.
!  pt0ctry  y coordinate of bubble center.
!  pt0ctrz  z coordinate of bubble center.
!
!  sndfile  Name of the sounding file.
!  rstinf   Name of restart file for initopt = 2 and 4.
!
!  inifmt   Data format of external data files (inifile, inigbf)
!           for initopt = 3.
!          = 1,  unformatted binary data;
!          = 3,  NCSA HDF format data;
!          = 7,  NetCDF format;
!          = 8,  Packed NetCDF format;
!          = 10, GRIB format
!
!  inisplited Flag to indicate whether the external data file (inifile,
!             inigbf, exbcname, terndta, sfcdtfl, soilinfl, rstinf etc.)
!             is in a single joined file or in multiple files which were
!             created using splitfiles. Valid for MPI mode and initopt = 3.
!          = 0, external data file is in a single file. The program should
!               split the file on-the-fly.
!          = 1, external files have already been split for each processor.
!
!          Introduced 'bit' control since arps5.3.2 (see instruciton for
!          dmp_out_joined for details). The bit order is "I A T S B R H".
!
!    NOTE: See the restriction for "max_fopen" flag when inisplited = 0.
!          Split-on-the-fly only works with binary and HDF format.
!
!  inifile  Name of external data history file for initopt = 3 and 4.
!  inigbf   Name of base-state/grid file for initopt = 3 and 4.
!
!  tsfcopt  Diagnose skin temperature
!          = 0, Use value in inifile
!          = 1, Use offset from air temperature at k=2
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &initialization
   initime = '2015-04-10.00:00:00',
   initopt = 3,
     timeopt = 2,
 
     pt0opt  = 1,
       ptpert0(1) =     4.0,
       pt0radx(1) = 10000.0,
       pt0rady(1) = 10000.0,
       pt0radz(1) =  1500.0,
       pt0ctrx(1) = 48000.0,
       pt0ctry(1) = 16000.0,
       pt0ctrz(1) =  1500.0,
 
     rstinf = 'waku_d1.rst003600', 
 
     inifmt   = 1,
     inisplited = 0,
     inifile = 'waku_d1_E2A.bin000000',
     inigbf = 'waku_d1_E2A.bingrdbas', 
 
 
   inibasopt = 1,
     viniopt = 1,
       ubar0   = 0.0,
       vbar0   = 0.0,
       zshear  = 3000.0,
 
     sndfile = 'waku_d1_E2A.snd',
 
     pttrop = 343.0,
     ttrop  = 213.0,
     ptground = 300.0,
     htrop   = 12000.0,
     qvmixed = 0.015,
     rhmixed = 0.95
     mixtop  = 1200.0,
 
   soilinitopt = 1,
     soiltintv   = 1800.0,
 
   tsfcopt = 0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Options and parameters related to Incremental Analysis Updating (IAU)
!  data assimilation.  IAU is a variation of nudging that is shown to
!  have advantages over the classic Newtonian nudging,
!  see Bloom et al., 1996, Monthly Weather Review, 1256-1271
!
!  nudgopt  Analysis Increment Updating nudging option.
!         = 0, no nudging
!         = 1, IAU with uniform time weight over nudging window
!         = 2, IAU with triangular shaped time weight, max at mid, zero at ends
!
!  ndstart  Time (sec) of beginning of IAU window.
!
!  ndstop   Time (sec) of end of nudging window
!
!  ndintvl  Time interval (sec) to apply nudging
!
!  ndgain   Multiplier to apply to nudging at each step
!           This is to offset possible loss of increments over the time
!           window due to time smoothing and other filtering in the model.
!           (typically 1.0 =< ndgain =< 1.2)
!
!  incrfnam File containing analysis increments (output from ADAS or 3DVAR)
!
!  incrfmt  Format of analysis increment file.
!         = 1, Fortran unformatted;
!         = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed, default).
!
!  For thunderstorm scale modeling with ongoing storms in the analysis
!  it is recommended to apply increments to all fields except the vertical
!  velocity and pressure.  Those fields will quickly respond to the increments
!  in the other fields to create a balanced state at the end of the IAU
!  assimilation window.
!
!  nudgu    Option to apply IAU to u wind component (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgv    Option to apply IAU to v wind component (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgw    Option to apply IAU to w wind component (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgp    Option to apply IAU to pressure (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgpt   Option to apply IAU to potential temperature (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqv   Option to apply IAU to specific humidity (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqc   Option to apply IAU to cloud water (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqr   Option to apply IAU to rain (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqi   Option to apply IAU to ice (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqs   Option to apply IAU to snow (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  nudgqh   Option to apply IAU to hail (0:no, 1:yes)
!
!  dfilter_opt Digital filtering Option
!           = 0, no digital filtering
!           = 1, turn on filter option
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
 &nudging
   nudgopt = 0,
     ndstart = 6.0,
     ndstop  = 300.0,
     ndintvl = 12.0,
     ndgain  = 1.0,
     incrfnam = 'dummy',
     incrfmt = 3,
     nudgu   = 1,
     nudgv   = 1,
     nudgw   = 0,
     nudgp   = 0,
     nudgpt  = 1,
     nudgqv  = 1,
     nudgqc  = 1,
     nudgqr  = 1,
     nudgqi  = 1,
     nudgqs  = 1,
     nudgqh  = 1,
 
    dfilter_opt=0,
      df_tstart=1500.0,
      df_tinv=5.0,
      df_nstps=20,
      df_wght(1)=0.05,
      df_wght(2)=0.05,
      df_wght(3)=0.05,
      df_wght(4)=0.05,
      df_wght(5)=0.05,
      df_wght(6)=0.05,
      df_wght(7)=0.05,
      df_wght(8)=0.05,
      df_wght(9)=0.05,
      df_wght(10)=0.05,
      df_wght(11)=0.05,
      df_wght(12)=0.05,
      df_wght(13)=0.05,
      df_wght(14)=0.05,
      df_wght(15)=0.05,
      df_wght(16)=0.05,
      df_wght(17)=0.05,
      df_wght(18)=0.05,
      df_wght(19)=0.05,
      df_wght(20)=0.05,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Options and parameters related to terrain specification.
!  This section is used by EXT2ARPS and ARPS (for ARPS this
!  section is only used when initopt=1).
!
!  ternopt  Model terrain option.
!         = 0, no terrain, flat ground
!         = 1, analytic mountain profile
!         = 2, terrain data read in from file terndta (defined later)
!  mntopt   Option for choosing idealized mountain type.
!         = 1, Bell-shaped mountain, default
!         = 2, user specified (in code)
!         mntopt used only for ternopt = 1.
!         Note: For mntopt = 2, the user must specify the
!         desired terrain in subroutine INIGRD.
!
!         The following options are used if ternopt = 1:
!  hmount   Mountain height (m).
!  mntwidx  Half-width of bell-shaped mountain in x-dir.
!  mntwidy  Half-width of bell-shaped mountain in y-dir.
!  mntctrx  x coordinate of the bell-shaped mountain center.
!  mntctry  y coordinate of the bell-shaped mountain center.
!
!         The following option is used if ternopt = 2:
!  terndta  Name of the terrain data file for ternopt=2.
!
!  ternfmt  Format of terrain data file.
!         = 1, Fortran unformatted (default);
!         = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed);
!         = 7, NetCDF format.
!    
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &terrain
   ternopt = 2
   mntopt  = 1,
     hmount  =     0.000,
     mntwidx = 10000.000,
     mntwidy = 10000.000,
     mntctrx = 10000.000,
     mntctry = 10000.000,
     terndta = 'waku_d1_E2A.trndata',
     ternfmt = 1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Grid specification section
!
!  dx       Grid spacing in x-direction in computational
!           and physical space (m).
!  dy       Grid spacing in y-direction in computational
!           and physical space (m).
!  dz       Averaged vertical grid spacing in transformed
!           computational space (m).
!
!  strhopt  Grid stretching option.
!         = 0, no vertical stretching;
!         = 1, vertical stretching with f=z**3 function for dz;
!         = 2, vertical stretching with hyperbolic tangent (see User's Guide).
!  dzmin    Minimum vertical grid spacing in physical space (m). Used
!           if strhopt = 1 or 2.
!  zrefsfc  Reference height of the surface (ground level) (m).
!
!  dlayer1  Height (m) of the layer beneath which stretching is not applied.
!           0.0 =< dlayer1 < (nz-3)*dz
!
!  dlayer2  Depth of the mid-layer with stretched vertical spacing (m)
!           0.0 =< dlayer2 < (nz-3)*dz and 0.0 =< dlayer1+dlayer2 < (nz-3)*dz
!           For consistency, dlayer2 is reset to: min(dlayer2,ztop-dlayer1).
!
!  strhtune Tuning parameter used when strhopt = 2.
!           A value between 0.2 and 5.0 is recommended. Stretching
!           becomes more linear as strhtune increases. Default value is 1.0.
!
!  zflat    Height at which the grid becomes flat in the
!           terrain-following coordinate transformation (m).
!
!  ctrlat   Latitude of the model physical domain center (deg. N).
!  ctrlon   Longitude of the model physical domain center (deg. E).
!
!           Parameters ctrlat and ctrlon do not have to be set when
!           initopt=3, since the values in the header of the input data
!           file will be used in this case.
!
!  crdorgnopt Option for origin of the model physical domain
!             = 0, at the southwest corner of the domain (default)
!             = 1, at the center of the domain
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &grid
   dx   = 1000,
   dy   = 1000,
   dz   = 500, 
   strhopt   = 1,
     dzmin   = 100.0,
     zrefsfc  = 0.0,
     dlayer1  = 0.0,
     dlayer2  = 12000.0,
     strhtune  = 1,
   zflat  = 10000.0,
   ctrlat  = 50.4983,
   ctrlon  = 9,937,
 
   crdorgnopt = 0,
 
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  projection parameters:
!
!  mapproj   Map projection option.
!          = 0, no map projection;
!          = 1, North polar projection      (-1 South Pole);
!          = 2, Northern Lambert projection (-2 Southern);
!          = 3, Mercator projection.
!  trulat1   1st true latitude of map projection.
!  trulat2   2nd true latitude of map projection (used only by mapproj = 2).
!  trulon    True longitude of map projection.
!  sclfct    Map scale factor (default is 1.0).
!
!          The above five parameters do not have to be set when
!          initopt=3, since the values in the header of the input data
!          file will be used in this case.
!
!  mpfctopt  Option parameter for map factor
!          = 0, map factor set to 1
!          = 1, map factor calculated according to mapproj
!
!  mptrmopt  Option parameter for map factor terms in momentum advection
!          = 0, ignore the terms
!          = 1, include the terms
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &projection
   mapproj  = 2, 
     trulat1  = 55.0,
     trulat2  = 45.0,
     trulon  = 8.8,
     sclfct  =  1.0,
 
   mpfctopt = 1,
   mptrmopt = 1,
   maptest  = 1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! dtbig   Large time step (s) for model integration.
! tstart  Model start time. In the restart case (initopt=2),
!         this value is reset to the time in the restart data.
! tstop   Stop time for the model integration.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &timestep
   dtbig   = 2.0,
   tstart=   0.0,
   tstop = 172800.0, 
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
! Acoustic wave solution
!
! vimplct  Vertically implicit option for the w and p equations.
!        = 0, explicit solution
!        = 1, implicit solution
! ptsmlstp Option for integrating potential temperature equation.
!        = 0, solve potential temperature eq. outside small time steps;
!        = 1, solve potential temperature eq. within small time steps.
! csopt    Sound wave speed option used in the pressure equation.
!        = 1, csound = cp/cv * rd * T
!        = 2, csound = cp/cv * rd * T * csfactr
!        = 3, csound = specfied constant
!          Option 1 should be used whenever possible. Reduced sound
!          wave speed may result in inaccurate solution.
!
! csfactr  Multiplication factor for the sound speed if csopt=2.
! csound   User specified constant sound speed if csopt=3.
! tacoef   Weighting coefficient for time average in the vertically
!          implicit solver. (see User's Guide)
! dtsml    Small time step (s) for integrating acoustic wave modes.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &acoustic_wave
   vimplct  = 0,
   ptsmlstp = 1,
 
   csopt    = 1,
     csfactr  = 0.5,
     csound   = 150.0,
 
   tacoef   = 0.6,
   dtsml   = 0.4,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!  Buoyancy and equation formulation
!
!  buoyopt  Flag for turning buoyancy terms on or off.
!          = 1, buoyancy terms included
!          = 0, buoyancy terms turned off
!  buoy2nd  Option for the second order terms in the linerized buoyancy terms.
!          = 1, including the 2nd-order terms
!          = 0, only the 1st-order terms
!
!  rhofctopt  Option for removing the density approximation in the
!         pressure gradient force(PGF) terms.
!           = 1, removing the approximation,using total density in PGF terms
!           = 0, using the base state density(rhobar) in PGF terms
!
!  bsnesq    Bousinessq approximation.
!           = 1, yes
!           = 0, no
!
!  peqopt    Option for an alternative formulation for pressure equation
!           = 1, Original formulation as described in ARPS 4.0 User's Guide.
!           = 2, An alternative formulation for special applications.
!                Option 1 recommended.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &equation_formulation
   buoyopt   = 1,
   buoy2nd   = 1,
   rhofctopt = 1,
   bsnesq    = 0,
   peqopt    = 1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!  Advection solution method
!
!  tintegopt Option for time integration
!            = 1: original leapfrog formulation
!            = 2: RK3 with only the advection (and coriolis) terms for
!                 each dependent variable updated each RK3 substep
!            = 3: RK3 with all forcing terms updated each RK3 substep
!                 for each dependent variable.
!
!  IMPORTANT NOTES FOR RK3 TIME INTEGRATION:
!
!         1) Currently only sadvopt 1-4 are supported.  Results may not 
!            be correct for sadvopt = 5 (yet)
!         2) It is highly recommended to use tintegopt = 2. 
!            tintegopt = 3 is only meant for testing
!            and benchmarking purposes.
!         3) Both RK3 implementations should be considered EXPERIMENTAL 
!            at this time.  USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.
!            The implementation has not been thoroughly tested for all 
!            combinations of options. The management assumes no 
!            responsibility for inaccurate results, loss of data, loss 
!            of hair, or loss of sanity by using tintegopt 2 or 3.
!            That said, basic tests using pure advection, a dry density 
!            current, and the Del City storm seemed to be fine.
!
!  madvopt Momentum advection option
!         = 1, second order advection
!         = 2, fourth order horizontal and second order vertical advection
!         = 3, fourth order advection in both the horizontal and vertical
!
!  sadvopt Scalar advection option
!         = 1, second order advection
!         = 2, fourth order horizontal and second order vertical advection
!         = 3, fourth order advection in both the horizontal and vertical
!         = 4, Zalesak's multi-dimensional version of FCT based on
!              second-order centered and first-order upstream schemes.
!              FCT is applied to potential temperature, water variables
!              and TKE, while either 2nd or 4th order advection is used
!              for pressure depending option fctorderopt.
!
!    NOTE: MPI results using sadvopt=4 may not be identical to non-MPI
!          results, although the difference is usually small. The exact
!          cause of the difference is unknown.
!
!    ADDITIONAL NOTE: sadvopt = 4 is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED when using 
!          any of the multi-moment microphysics schemes (mphyopt = 
!          9,10,11 currently). Use of sadvopt 1-3 may result (in some 
!          cases) in noisy and/or unphysical behavior in the solution.
!          This appears to be due to the non-monotonic nature of
!          the simpler advection schemes and resulting decorrelation
!          of the microphysical moments, which are advected separately.
!
!         = 5, simple positive definite advection (MPDCD) scheme
!              based on flux correction/limiting on leapfrog-centered
!              advective fluxes.
!              With this option, positive definite water variables and TKE
!              are advected using this scheme while potential temperature
!              and pressure are advected by either 2nd or 4th-order centered
!              scheme (i.e., sadvopt=1 or 3) depending option fctorderopt.
!
!    NOTE: sadvopt = 5 is not currently recommended for tintegopt = 2 or 3
!
!  fctorderopt Option of the spactial order of accuracy of the FCT advection
!              (sadvopt=4) and MPDCD advection schemes (sadvopt=5)
!         = 1  2nd order
!         = 2  4th order
!
!  fctadvptprt Option for FCT advection for potential temperature.
!              Used only when sadvopt=4.
!         = 0, FCT scheme is applied to ptbar+ptprt. Not recommended.
!         = 1, FCT scheme is applied to ptprt only. This option is RECOMMENDED!
!         = 2, FCT scheme is applied to ptbar+ptprt-min(ptbar+ptprt).
!
!  The most accurate (also most expensive) choices are:
!         madvopt=3, sadvopt=4, fctorderopt=2 with fctadvptprt=1.
!  The most economical choices are:
!         madvopt=1, sadvopt=1.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &numerics
   tintegopt =    3,
   madvopt   =    3,
   sadvopt   =    4,
   fctorderopt=   2,
   fctadvptprt=   1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Boundary Conditions Specification
!
!  lbcopt  Lateral boundary condition option.
!        = 1, All boundary condition options except externally-forced
!             (option 5 for ebc, wbc, nbc, or sbc is not allowed)
!
!        = 2, Externally-forced lateral boundary conditions. In this
!             case, ebc, wbc, nbc, and sbc will be set to 5.
!
!  wbc     West boundary condition option.
!  ebc     East boundary condition option.
!  sbc     South boundary condition option.
!  nbc     North boundary condition option.
!        = 1 Rigid wall;
!        = 2 Periodic;
!        = 3 Zero gradient;
!        = 4 Radiation (open) lateral boundary;
!        = 5 Externally-forced lateral boundary;
!        = 6 Nested grid lateral boundary.
!  tbc     Top boundary condition option.
!        = 1 Rigid wall;
!        = 2 Periodic;
!        = 3 Zero gradient:
!        = 4 Linear hydrostatic radiation top../bin/arpssfc  < ../input/E2A_203_2700/arps203_2700.input
 boundary:
!            References: Klemp and Durran MWR, 1983 and Chen MWR, 1991
!
! *****THIS OPTION CANNOT BE USED WITH DISTRIBUTED-MEMORY MPI RUNS *****
!
!            This condition requires a statically stable base state
!            at scalar nz-2.  It will run with a neutral environment
!            but the accuracy (and application of the condition) is
!            questionable. In addition, zflat must be set
!            to a level at or below the scalar point nz-3.
!
!  fftopt  Fast Fourier Transform method for use with the upper
!          boundary tbc=4.
!
!          = 1, periodic transform used, edges are assumed to be
!               equal in value.
!
!            Requires special dimensions for (nx,ny) given by
!
!            nx-1 = 2**P * 3**Q * 5**R
!            ny-1 = 2**P * 3**Q * 5**R where
!
!            P .GE. 1 , Q .GE. 0 , and R .GE. 0 .  (nx,ny must be odd!)
!            For a xz run nx should be odd and ny = 4.
!            For a yz run ny should be odd and nx = 4.
!            For a xyz run nx and ny should be odd.
!
!          = 2, even Cosine transform used, edges are NOT assumed to be
!               equal in value.  To determine the nx and ny required for
!               this fft choice, ADD 1 to the value obtained from the
!               above equation:
!
!            nx-1 = 2**P * 3**Q * 5**R + 1
!            ny-1 = 2**P * 3**Q * 5**R + 1
!
!            P .GE. 1 , Q .GE. 0 , and R .GE. 0 .  (nx,ny SHOULD be even!)
!            For a xz run nx should be even and ny = 4.
!            For a yz run ny should be even and nx = 4.
!            For a xyz run nx and ny should be even.
!      NOTE: The simulation will NOT stop if an incorrect even value
!            is selected.  In this case the transform will be the
!            slower simple fourier transform, NOT a FAST fourier transform.
!
!  bbc     Bottom boundary condition option.
!        = 1 Rigid wall;
!        = 2 Periodic;
!        = 3 Zero gradient;
!
! rbcopt   Radiation lateral boundary condition option (used if
!          radiation condition is chosen for wbc,ebc,sbc,nbc).
!          (Note: These condition are applied to horizontal
!           velocities u and v ONLY.)
!        = 1, Klemp & Wilhelmson type with constant phase speed, c;
!             computed AND applied on the SMALL time step.
!        = 2, Klemp & Wilhelmson type with constant phase speed, c;
!             computed on the BIG time step and applied on the
!             SMALL time step.
!        = 3, Orlanski (1976) condition computed on the BIG time step
!             and applied on the SMALL time step.
!        = 4, Klemp-Lilly /Durran (1983) condition for u and v.
!             Computes the Orlanski phase speed on the BIG time step
!             and vertically averages the phase speed.  The phase
!             speed is then applied on the small time step.
! rbc_plbc  When radiation LBC is used, the option for pressure
!           lateral boundary conditions
!        = 1, pprt is solved from the pressure equation directly (it was
!          the formulation since ARPS 3.0). It is the default.
!        = 2, zero normal gradient is set for pprt at the lateral
!          boundary with radiation condition (this option was added
!          in arps5.3.x)
!
! c_phase  Constant phase speed for rbcopt=1 (only).
! rlxlbc   Relaxation coeff. used by RBC option
!          0.0=< rlxlbc =< 0.5
! pdetrnd  Option switch for detrending the pressure field.
!          With the option on, the domain averaged perturbation
!          Exner function is reset to zero every time step to remove
!          domain-wide pressure drift/trend sometimes seen when
!          open boundary condition is used.
!          The detrending SHOULD NOT be used when the model is
!          initialized with 3D fields (real data).
!        = 0, no detrend;
!        = 1, with detrend.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &boundary_condition_options
   lbcopt  = 2,
     wbc     = 5,
     ebc     = 5,
     sbc     = 5,
     nbc     = 5,
       c_phase = 300.0,
       rlxlbc  = 0.5,
       rbcopt  = 4,
       rbc_plbc= 4,
 
   tbc     = 1,
     fftopt  = 2,
   bbc     = 1,
 
   pdetrnd = 0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  EXBCPARA   Details of the external boundary conditions (lbcopt=2).
!
!  exbcname   The prefix of the input external boundary file names.
!
!  tinitebd = The time in 'yyyy-mm-dd.hh:mm:ss' format for the
!             first external boundary data file. The file must be
!             be named in format exbcname//'.yyyymmdd.hhmmss'.
!
!  tintvebd = Time interval (s) at which external boundary data files
!             will be searched.
!
!  ngbrz    = Number of grid zones in the boundary relaxation zone.
!  brlxhw   = Half-width of the boundary relaxation function in term
!             of the number of grid zones (a real number).
!  cbcdmp   = The coefficient of relaxation in the relaxation zone (1/s).
!
!            IMPORTANT NOTE: Starting from arps5.3.2, the boundary zone
!            relaxation is applied for lbcopt=2 as well as lbcopt=1.
!            When lbcopt = 1, the relaxation is towards the base state
!            defined by the bar variables (ubar,vbar,ptbar,pbar,qvbar,
!            and zero w and q's). When lbcopt=2, as before, the relaxation
!            is towards the external boundary condition state.
!            To avoid relaxation for lbcopt=1, set cbcdmp=0.0.
!
!  exbcfmt   Format of external boundary data files.
!          = 1, Fortran unformatted (default);
!          = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed or compressed);
!          = 7, NetCDF format.
!     tinitebd = '2013-08-27.00:00:00',
!        exbcname = 'waku203_2700_E2A',
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &exbcpara
   exbcname = 'waku_d1_E2A',
   tinitebd = '2015-04-10.00:00:00',
   tintvebd = 10800,
 
   ngbrz    = 11,
   brlxhw   = 5.3,
   cbcdmp   = 0.0033333333,
 
   exbcfmt  = 1,
 /
 
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!
! coriopt  Option flag for Coriolis parameters
!        = 0, Coriolis paramters are set to zero, therefore no Coriolis
!             effect is included.
!        = 1, Only Coriolis terms involving horizontal wind are included,
!             and the Coriolis parameters are functions of central lat only;
!        = 2, Coriolis terms involving both horizontal and vertical wind
!             are included, and the Coriolis parameters are function of
!             central latitude only;
!        = 3, as 1, but the Coriolis parameters are latitude dependent and
!             effects of spatial gradient of map factor and of earth
!             curvature are also included;
!        = 4, as 2, but the Coriolis parameters are latitude dependent and
!             effects of spatial gradient of map factor and of earth
!             curvature are also included;
!
! earth_curvature   Option flag for including terms due to earth curvature
!        effect (see Xue et al 2000, ARPS Part I) when coriopt=3 or 4.
!        = 0, these terms are neglected.
!        = 1, these terms are included when coriopt=3 or 4.
!
! coriotrm An option for imposing an approximate geostrophic initial
!          balance between the base state winds and the pressure gradient
!          force.  If coriotrm=2 the Coriolis terms in the momentum
!          equations are modified from their standard formulation so that
!          f(u-ubar) and f(v-vbar) are used in place of fu and fv.  Here
!          f*ubar and f*vbar represent the geostrophic pressure gradient
!          forces associated with ubar and vbar. It may be desirable
!          to impose this balance if the model is initialized from a
!          single sounding (the base-state pressure gradient being zero)
!          and the user wishes to redefine the pressure gradient to be
!          approximately consistent with a geostrophic balance.  This
!          option is not used if coriopt=0 (no Coriolis force).
!
!        = 1, No balancing step.  Total u and v are used in the Coriolis terms;
!        = 2, An approximate geostrophic balance imposed initially.
!             u-ubar and v-vbar are used in the place of u and v in the
!             Coriolis formulation.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &coriolis_force
   coriopt  = 0,
     earth_curvature = 0,
     coriotrm        = 1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Sub-grid-scale turbulent mixing parameters.
!
!  tmixopt   Control parameter for turbulent mixing options.
!         = 0, zero turbulent mixing
!         = 1, constant mixing coefficient, km = tmixcst
!         = 2, Smagorinsky mixing coefficient
!         = 3, Smagorinsky mixing coefficient
!              plus a constant coeffcient, tmixcst
!         = 4, 1.5 TKE turbulent mixing
!
!  trbisotp  Option for isotropic subgrid scale turbulence.
!         = 0, the turbulence is assumed to be anisotropic,
!              Use when dx>>dz.
!         = 1, the turbulence is assumed to be isotropic (default).
!              Use when dx ~ dz.
!
!  tkeopt    Option for 1.5 order TKE formulation used by tmixopt=4
!         = 1, Moeng and Wyngaard subgrid-scale turbulence parameterization
!         = 2, Deardroff subgrid-scale turbulence parameterization
!         = 3, Sun and Chang (1986, J.Climate Appl. Meteor.)
!              PBL parameterization for unstable boundary layer.
!
!  trbvimp   Option for implicit treatment of vertical mixing
!          = 0, vertical explicit (default)
!          = 1, vertical implicit (always use this option
!                                  when tmixopt=4 AND tkeopt=3)
!
!  tmixvert  Option for computing only the vertical mixing terms.
!
!            Use for synoptic scale forecasts (where dx>>dz).
!            Time intensive horizontal components in the turbulence
!            mixing are neglected.
!
!          = 0, full turbulence formulation.
!          = 1, only vertical components are retained.
!
!  prantl    Constant turbulent prandtl number used by Smagorinsky option
!
!  tmixcst   Value of the constant mixing coefficient (m**2/s) when
!            tmixopt=1 or 3
!
!  kmlimit   Nondimensional upper limit on mixing coefficient. Upper
!            limit for stability is 1.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &turbulence
   tmixopt  = 4,
     trbisotp = 0,
     tkeopt   = 3,
     tmixcst  = 0.0,
     tmixvert = 0,
     prantl   = 1.0,
 
   trbvimp  = 1,
 
   kmlimit  = 1.0,
  /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Computational mixing parameters.
!
!  cmix2nd  2nd order computational mixing option.
!           = 0, mixing off
!           = 1, mixing on.
!  cfcm2h   2nd order horizontal computational mixing coefficient scaled
!           by horizontal grid spacing (1/s).
!  cfcm2v   2nd order vertical computational mixing coefficient scaled
!           by vertical grid spacing (1/s).
!
!  cmix4th  4th order computational mixing option.
!           = 0, mixing off
!           = 1, mixing on.
!  cfcm4h   4th order horizontal computational mixing coefficient scaled
!           by horizontal grid spacing (1/s).
!  cfcm4v   4th order vertical computational mixing coefficient scaled
!           by vertical grid spacing (1/s).
!  scmixfctr  Reduction factor of the computational mixing coefficients
!           for scalars relative to those of velocities, the c-mixing
!           coefficients are multiplied by a factor of scmixfctr for scalars.
!           Default is 1.
!  cmix_opt Option to apply monotonic computational mixing (4th and
!           6th order only)
!           = 0 no application of monotonic scheme  (default)
!           = 1 monotonic applied to 4th order computational mixing
!             NOTE> = 1 is recommended for mphyopt >= 9.
!           = 2 no monotonic, but 6th order computational mixing
!           = 3 monotonic applied to 6th order computational mixing
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &computational_mixing
   cmix2nd = 1,
     cfcm2h  = 0.0,
     cfcm2v  = 4.0e-4,
 
   cmix4th = 1,
     cfcm4h  = 5.0e-4,
     cfcm4v  = 5.0e-4,
 
   scmixfctr = 1.0,
   cmix_opt = 0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Acoustic wave divergence damping parameters.
!
!  divdmp    Acoustic wave divergence damping option.
!          = 0, divergence damping off
!          = 1, isotropic divergence damping on.
!          = 2, anisotripic divergence damping on.
!  divdmpndh Non-dimensional divergence damping coefficient in
!            horizontal direction
!  divdmpndv Non-dimensional divergence damping coefficient in
!            vertical direction
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &divergence_damping
   divdmp    = 2,
     divdmpndh = 0.05,
     divdmpndv = 0.05,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Upper level Rayleigh damping parameters.
!
!  raydmp    Rayleigh damping option.
!          = 0, Damping off
!          = 1, Damping difference between total and base state fields
!          = 2, Damping difference between total and external fields
!               defined in the EXBC file. In this case, lbcopt must
!               be set to 2.
!
!  zbrdmp    Height of the bottom of Rayleigh damping (sponge) layer (m).
!  cfrdmp    Rayleigh damping coefficient (1/second).
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &rayleigh_damping
   raydmp = 2,
     cfrdmp = 0.00333,
     zbrdmp = 12000.0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Robert-Asselin time filter coefficient for leapfrog time
!
!  flteps   Robert-Asselin time filter coefficient (non-dimensional).
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &asselin_time_filter
   flteps = 0.05,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Moisture/microphysics parameters:
!
!  moist     Moist processes option.
!          = 0, Dry run, all processes related to moisture are turned off
!          = 1, Moist processes are activated. If mphyopt.eq.0,
!               water (qc and qr) or ice equations will not be solved.
!
!  mphyopt   Microphysics option.
!          = 0, No microphysics process. Warm (liquid) saturation
!               adjustment is performed
!          = 1, Kessler warm rain microphysics (WARMRA)
!          = 2, Ice microphysics (LINICE)
!          = 3, Schultz NEM ice microphysics (NEMICE)
!          = 4, Straka implementation of Lin, Farley, Orville (1983)
!               3-ice scheme (LFO)
!               Reference: Gilmore et al (2004) Mon. Wea. Rev.
!          = 5, WRF WSM6 scheme (WSM6WR)
!          = 6, WRF WSM6 scheme with simplified gamma distribution
!               constraint for rain (WSM6GR)
!          = 7, WRF WSM6 scheme with diagnostic N0 (WSM6N0)
!
!          = 8, Multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization: 1-moment (MYSM)
!          = 9, Multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization: 2-moment (MYDMf)
!               with fixed alpha.
!          = 10, Multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization: 2-moment (MYDMd)
!                with diagnosed alpha.
!          = 11, Multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization: 3-moment (MYTM)
!          = 12, 2-moment version of the Milbrandt-Yau (2005, JAS) microphysics scheme.
!                The main subroutine, 'mp_milbrandt2mom_main', is essentially
!                directly from the RPN-CMC physics library of the Canadian GEM model.
!                It is called by the wrapper 'my2mom_driver' which makes the necessary
!                adjustments to the calling parameters for the interface to ARPS.
!
!          REFERENCE for microphysics scheme 8-12:
!
!      Milbrandt, J. A. and M. K. Yau, 2005: A multi-moment bulk microphysics
!      parameterization. Part I: Analysis of the role of the spectral shape
!      parameter. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3051-3064.
!
!      Milbrandt, J. A. and M. K. Yau, 2005: A multi-moment bulk microphysics
!      parameterization. Part II: A proposed three-moment closure and scheme
!      description. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3065-3081.
!
!      NOTE FOR MULTIMOMENT SCHEMES: sadvopt = 4 is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED when using any of the
!                     multi-moment microphysics schemes (mphyopt = 9,10,11 currently)
!                     Use of sadvopt 1-3 may result (in some cases) in
!                     noisy and/or unphysical behavior in the solution.
!                     This appears to be due to the non-monotonic nature of
!                     the simpler advection schemes and resulting decorrelation
!                     of the microphysical moments, which are advected
!                     separately.
!
!  nmphystp  The number of (large) time steps between microphysics calls.
!            When nmphystp=1, microphysics is called every time step.
!            Default = 1.
!
!      NOTE: arps does not work correctly when nmphystp>1. So do NOT change
!             the default at present. It has to do with the leapfrog
!             scheme we use and the adjustment not getting applied to all
!             time steps.
!
!  dsdpref  Option of preference for those microphysics parameters defined below
!           = 0, Namelist value specififed below have higher preference than
!                those values in data file.
!           = 1, values in data file have higher preference. Note that if the
!                data (n0rain, n0snow, n0hail, rhosnow, rhohail) are not save
!                in the initial file (inifile), it will be forced to use values
!                specified below.
!
!  Note that the following microphysics parameters are not universally valid for all schemes
!  The mphyopt values for which they are valid for are indicated.
!  They will have no effect on schemes for which they are not valid.
!
!  ntcloud  Constant number concentration for cloud (1/m**3): mphyopt=8
!  n0rain   Intercept parameter for rainwater DSD (1/m**4):   mphyopt=2,8
!  n0snow   Intercept parameter for snow DSD (1/m**4):        mphyopt=2,8
!  n0grpl   Intercept parameter for graupel DSD (1/m**4):     mphyopt=8
!  n0hail   Intercept parameter for hail DSD (1/m**4):        mphyopt=2,8
!  rhoice   Ice crystal density ( kg/m**3 ):                  mphyopt=8,9,10,11
!  rhosnow  Snow density ( kg/m**3 ):                         mphyopt=2,8,9,10,11
!  rhogrpl  Graupel density ( kg/m**3 ):                      mphyopt=8,9,10,11
!  rhohail  Hail density ( kg/m**3 ):                         mphyopt=2,8,9,10,11
!  alpharain shape parameter for gamma rain DSD:              mphyopt=8,9
!  alphaice shape parameter for ice crystal DSD:              mphyopt=8,9
!  alphasnow shape parameter for snow DSD:                    mphyopt=8,9
!  alphagrpl shape parameter for graupel DSD:                 mphyopt=8,9
!  alphahail shape parameter for hail DSD:                    mphyopt=8,9
!
!  Default values for them from Lin et al. (1983) are:
!  n0rain  = 8.0e6, n0snow  = 3.0e6, n0hail  = 4.0e4,
!  rhosnow = 100.0, rhohail = 913.0,
!
!  Default values from Milbrandt and Yau (2005) are:
!  ntcloud = 1.0e8, n0grpl = 4.0e5, rhoice = 500.0,
!  all alpha's = 0
!
!  graupel_ON  Option to suppress graupel initiation for mphyopt = 8,9,10,11
!       = 0    Graupel initiation is suppressed.
!       = 1    Graupel is allowed.
!
!  hail_ON     Option to supress hail initiation for mphyopt = 8,9,10,11
!              Note that this option will remove any initial hail and place
!              it in the graupel catagory as well.
!       = 0    Hail initiation is suppressed
!       = 1    Hail is allowed
!
!  mpthermdiag Option to output microphysical rates associated with
!              latent heating/cooling changes.  Note that these are the
!              mass rates, not the actual cooling/heating rates.  In each
!              term, the value output is positive.  In the future, other
!              process rates may be added for further diagnostic purposes.
!              Setting this value to 1 will cause the model to output each
!              process (27 in total) for each history dump time to separate
!              HDF files.  Only mphyopt 2,8,9,10, and 11 are supported at this
!              time.  For questions, email ddawson@ou.edu.
!
!  cnvctopt  Option for convective cumulus parameterizations.
!          = 0, no convective parameterization and grid-scale
!               condensation
!          = 1, Kuo scheme with its own grid-scale condensation
!               (Option disabled).
!          = 2, Kuo scheme and Kessler warm rain microphysics
!          = 3, Kain and Fritsch cumulus parameterization
!          = 4, WRF Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization
!          = 5, WRF new Kain-Fritsch scheme (April 2002: KF_ETA)
!
!  confrq    Interval of cumulus parameterization updates in seconds
!
!  kffbfct   Factor for Kain-Fritsch scheme,to feed convectively
!            generated rainwater into grid-resolved rainwater
!            (or snow) field. kffbfct is the fraction of available
!            precipitation to be fed back (0.0 - 1.0).
!            =0.0, no feed back
!            =1.0, all convective rainwater feed back,
!                  so no cumulus rainfall in this case.
!            0.0 < kffbfct <= 1.0 recommended when horizontal grid
!            spacing is less than 25km.
!
!  kfsubsattrig Turn on sub-saturation in the Kain-Fritsch scheme
!          = 0, off
!          = 1, on
!
!  The following four parameters are used by Kuo scheme only.
!
!  wcldbs    Vertical motion needed at cloud base for convection.
!  qpfgfrq   Frequency of grid parameters' updates in seconds
!  idownd    Downdraft flag.
!          = 0, no downdrafts;
!          = 1, simple downdraft model.
!
!  impfallopt   Option for vertically implicit fall velocity scheme
!             = 0, explicit scheme
!             = 1, implicit scheme
!
!  fallopt   Option for selecting various fall velocity schemes
!             = 1, Lin fall velocity formulation and coeff.
!             = 2, Ferrier (1994) formulation and updated coefficients.
!
!  subsatopt Option for allowing condenstation to occur before
!            100% relative humidity is required.
!            Turned on only for relatively course grid resolutions.
!          = 0, Condensation occurs when RH >=100%
!            1, Condensation occurs when RH >= rhsat, which is
!               a user specified value.
!            2, RH for condensation (rhsat) is defined as a linear
!               function of dx between dx_rhsatmin and
!               dx_rhsat100, and is rhsatmin for dx>=dx_rhsatmin
!               and 1.0 for dx<=dx_rhsat100, i.e.,
!
!               rhsat = max(rhsatmin,min(1.0,rhsatmin+(1.0-rhsatmin)
!               *(dx-dx_rhsatmin)/(dx_rhsat100-dx_rhsatmin)))
!
!  rhsat       Threshold of RH for condensation
!  rhsatmin    Used when subsatopt=2. Minimum threshold of RH for
!              condensation for a grid size of dx_rhsatminbig
!  dx_rhsatmin Used when subsatopt=2. The physical grid distance (m)
!              for condensation to occur when RH=rhsatmin.
!
!              Suggested: rhsatmin=0.85 dx_rhsatmin=50000.
!
!  dx_rhsat100 Used when subsatopt=2. The physical grid distance (m) for
!              condensation to occur when RH=100%.
!
!              Suggested: dx_rhsat100=5000.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
 
 &microphysics
   moist    = 1,
   mphyopt  = 2,
   nmphystp = 1,
   dsdpref  = 0,
    ntcloud   = 1.0e8,
    n0rain  = 8.0e6,
    n0snow  = 3.0e6,
    n0grpl  = 4.0e5,
    n0hail  = 4.0e4,
 
    rhoice = 500.0,
    rhosnow = 100.0,
    rhogrpl = 400.0,
    rhohail = 913.0,
    alpharain = 0.0,
    alphaice = 0.0,
    alphasnow = 0.0,
    alphagrpl = 0.0,
    alphahail = 0.0,
 
   graupel_ON = 1,
   hail_ON    = 1,
 
   mpthermdiag = 0,
 
   cnvctopt = 0,
     confrq   = 300.0,
     kffbfct  = 0.0,
     kfsubsattrig=0,
     wcldbs   = 0.005,
     qpfgfrq  = 120.0,
     idownd   = 1,
 
   impfallopt = 0,
   fallopt = 1,
 
   subsatopt = 0,
     rhsat = 0.8,
     rhsatmin = 0.8,
     dx_rhsatmin = 50000.,
     dx_rhsat100 = 5000.,
 
 /
 
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Pollutant concentration parameters (Added by Tina Katopodes Chow's group
!  and organized by Y. Wang).
!
!  ccin :       Concentration option
!             = 0, no pollutant concentration
!             = 1, pollutant concentration is calculated
!                  use this for restarting from runs that did not have
!                  cc output, or to initialize the cc field or emission
!             = 2, pollutant concentration is tracked
!                  use this for restarts, will read in cc from restart file
!
!  cpoint :     Number of emitted place
!             < 0, Bubble shaped initial conc. field with ccin == 1
!                  specify max concentration in ccemit(1)
!                  bubble dimensions specified by pt0radx,pt0rady,pt0radz
!                  pt0ctrx,pt0ctry,pt0ctrz (set pt0opt = 0, see code for more details)
!                = -1, invalid option currently
!                = -2, initialize uniform cc bubble
!                = -3, initialize non-uniform cc bubble
!                = -4, initialize uniform cc cube
!                = -5, initialize uniform cc cylinder
!
!             >  0, emitted places specified with icc,jcc,kcc, ccstart, ccend
!                   The maximum number of emitted place is 50.
!
!  For cpoint > 0:
!    icc     :   Grid position of emitted place in x direction
!    jcc     :   Grid position of emitted place in y direction
!    kcc     :   Grid position of emitted place in z direction
!
!    ccstart :   Emitted start time
!    ccend   :   Emitted end time
!
!  ccemit  :   Emitted concentration
!         NOTE - ccemit is divided by dx*dy*dz at the source location
!           (specify initial concentration in ccemit(1) if using cpoint = -2 to -5)
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &concentration
   ccin   = 0,
   cpoint = 1,
     icc     = 85,
     jcc     = 83,
     kcc     = 2,
     ccstart = 7200,
     ccend   = 10800,
   ccemit = 180000.0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Radiation physics input parameters:
!
!  radopt    Option to switch on/off radiation physics
!          = 0, No radiation physics
!          = 1, Simplified surface radiation physics
!          = 2, Atmospheric radiation transfer parameterization
!          = 3, OASIS data
!
!  Notes: 1) When sfcphy is chosen to 3 or 4, radopt=0 will be reset
!            to 1 in order to compute the surface energy balance for
!            soil model.
!
!  radstgr   Option for radiation computing at staggering points (used by
!            radopt = 2 only).
!
!          = 0, No staggering; Radiation calculation on x-y plane is at
!               all points
!          = 1, staggering; Radiation calculation on x-y plane is at
!               (even,even) and (odd,odd) points. The values at
!               (even,odd) (odd,even) points are averaged from the
!               surrounding four points. For example for nx=ny=9, the
!               directly calculation are performed at the "x" points,
!               then calculate radiation variables at "o" by averaging
!               from their surrounding "x" points. (The "." points are
!               not updated since they are unused for scalar variables).
!               This scheme can reduce ALMOST HALF of radiation calculation.
!
!
!                         j
!
!                       9 | . . . . . . . . .
!                       8 | o x o x o x o x .
!                       7 | x o x o x o x o .
!                       6 | o x o x o x o x .
!                       5 | x o x o x o x o .
!                       4 | o x o x o x o x .
!                       3 | x o x o x o x o .
!                       2 | o x o x o x o x .
!                       1 | x o x o x o x o .
!                         +-------------------  i
!                           1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
!
!               On boundary, the zero-gradient is assumed.
!
!       NOTE: if nx or ny is even and radstgr=1, the message passing version will
!       NOT produce identical results for different number of processors
!       but the difference is small and within the approximation by
!       calculating radiation every other grid point.
!
!       NOTE: the MPI bug with odd nx and ny has been fixed.
!             However, when either (nx-3)/nproc_x or (ny-3)/nproc_y is odd,
!             the message passing version will also not produce identical
!             results with one serial processor run.
!
!  rlwopt    Option to choose the longwave schemes.
!          = 0, transmission functions are
!               computed using the k-distribution method with linear
!               pressure scaling.  cooling rates are not calculated
!               accurately for pressures less than 20 mb. The
!               computation is faster with this option.
!          = 1, transmission functions in the
!               co2, o3 in the co2, o3, and the three water vapor bands
!               with strong absorption are computed using table look-up.
!               cooling rates are computed accurately from the surface
!               up to 0.01 mb.
!
! radshade  Option to take into account the topographic shade
!           0- no topograpghic shade
!           1- topgraphic shade
!           2- topgraphic shade for a idealized valley
!              uniform in the north south direction
!
!  dtrad     Time interval (seconds) to update the radiation forcing
!            (used by radopt = 2 only).
!
!  raddiag   Option to dump radiation variables to a file in GrADS
!            format for diagnostic review. The frequency is controled by
!            dtrad (used by radopt = 2 only).
!
!          = 0, no such dump
!          = 1, dump to a file with a name like 'runname.radout'
!               and its control file has a name like 'runname.radctl'
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
 
 &radiation
   radopt  = 2,
     radstgr = 1,
     rlwopt  = 1,
     radshade = 1,
     dtrad   = 600.0,
     raddiag = 0,
 /
 
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  sfcphy    Surface physics options.
!          = 0, No surface physics
!          = 1, Surface fluxes are calculated from constant surface
!               drag coefficients, and user-specified values of surface
!               potential temperature and relative humidity
!          = 2, Surface fluxes are calculated from the
!               stability-dependent surface drag coefficients, and user-
!               specified values of surface potential temperature and
!               relative humidity
!          = 3, Surface fluxes are calculated from constant surface
!               drag coefficients, and predicted surface temperature
!               and surface volumetric water content
!          = 4, Surface fluxes are calculated from the stability-dependent
!               surface drag coefficients, and predicted surface
!               temperature and surface volumetric water content
!
!  landwtr  Flag indicating whether or not a distinction is made between
!           land and water surfaces in the surface physics calculations.
!          = 0  No distinction between land and water
!          = 1  Land and water are treated differently
!  cdhwtropt Option to use cdhwtr instead of calculated values for cdh
!            (and cdq) over water even for sfcphy=2 or 4.
!          = 0  Use calculated values
!          = 1  used specified value cdhwtr
!  cdmlnd   Land surface momentum drag coefficient.
!  cdmwtr   Water surface momentum drag coefficient.
!  cdhlnd   Land surface heat exchange coefficient.
!  cdhwtr   Water surface heat exchange coefficient.
!  cdqlnd   Land surface moisture exchange coefficient.
!  cdqwtr   Water surface moisture exchange coefficient.
!
!  pbldopt  Option for PBL depth determination.
!          = 1, PBL depth is user-specified (as pbldpth0)
!          = 2, PBL depth is diagnosed
!
!  pbldpth0  Specified PBL depth for option 1 and 2.
!  lsclpbl0  PBL length scale used for tkeopt=3
!            (0.25 recommended by Sun and Chang 1986).
!
!  tqflxdis  Option for distributing heat and moisture fluxes qudratically
!            in a specified depth, dtqflxdis. Use only when near surface
!            vertical resolution is high (dzmin < 50m).
!            = 0, no distribution
!            = 1, with distribution
!            = 2, with distribution over a depth according to similarity
!  dtqflxdis Depth of flux distribution for tqflxdis=1, 200 m recommended.
!
!  smthflx   Option to smooth surface fluxes
!            = 0, no smoothing
!            = 1, smoothing
!  numsmth   Number of smooth passes (>=1 if smthflx=1)
!
!  sfcdiag  Flag controlling output of surface diagnostic calculations.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &surface_physics
   sfcphy   = 4,
     landwtr  = 0,
     cdhwtropt= 0,
     cdmlnd   = 3.0e-3,
     cdmwtr   = 1.0e-3,
     cdhlnd   = 3.0e-3,
     cdhwtr   = 1.0e-3,
     cdqlnd   = 2.1e-3,
     cdqwtr   = 0.7e-3,
 
   pbldopt  = 2,
     pbldpth0 = 1400.0,
     lsclpbl0 = 0.25,
 
   tqflxdis = 0,
     dtqflxdis= 200.0,
 
   smthflx = 1,
     numsmth = 3,
 
   sfcdiag  = 0,
 /
 
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  The following surface parameters are valid for sfcphy = 3 and 4:
!
!  sfcdat   Option for defining the surface characteristics when initopt.ne.2.
!
!         = 1, Surface characteristics are defined using input parameters.
!         = 2, Surface characteristics are defined using file sfcdtfl;
!         = 3, Same as sfcdat =2, except when initopt=3 and
!              the variables are present in the grid/base state
!              file inibgf, the values in inibgf will be used instead.
!
!           This option is not used when initopt=2, i.e., for restart runs.
!           In this case, data in the restart file will be used.
!
!  styp     Soil type (an integer). Used if sfcdat=1.
!           The soil type is based on USDA definitions along with
!           categories for ice and water.
!
!           01    Sand
!           02    Loamy sand            11 17 23
!           03    Sandy loam            14 20 26 27
!           04    Silt loam
!           05    Loam                  12 18 24
!           06    Sandy clay loam       15 21 28
!           07    Silty clay loam
!           08    Clay loam             13
!           09    Sandy clay            19 25
!           10    Silty clay            16 22
!           11    Clay                  29 30 31
!           12    Ice                   34
!           13    Water                 00
!
!           Note: The numbers on the right hand side above represent
!                 Mylne and Henderson-Sellers soil classes.
!
!           Default: 10 for Norman, Oklahoma
!
!  vtyp     Vegetation type (an integer). Used if sfcdat=1.
!
!           01    Desert
!           02    Tundra
!           03    Grassland
!           04    Grassland with shrub cover
!           05    Grassland with tree cover
!           06    Deciduous forest
!           07    Evergreen forest
!           08    Rain forest
!           09    Ice
!           10    Cultivation
!           11    Bog or marsh
!           12    Dwarf shrub
!           13    Semidesert
!           14    Water
!
!           Default: 3 for Norman, Oklahoma
!
!  lai      Leaf Area Index. Used if sfcdat=1. Default: 0.31
!
!  roufns0  Surface roughness. Used if sfcdat=1. Default: 0.01
!
!  veg0     Vegetation fraction. Used if sfcdat=1. Default: 0.3
!
!  sfcdtfl  Data file containing the surface characteristics
!           (soil and vegetation type, leaf area index and surface roughness).
!
!  soilmodel_option Soil model scheme option
!     = 1, Two-layer Force-restore model (Noilhan/Planton scheme)
!     = 2, Multi-layer 'OUSoil' scheme (Based on OSU/NCEP ETA scheme)
!
!  nzsoil   Number of soil layers. Maximum number of levels is 100.
!
!  dzsoil   Averaged vertical grid spacing in transformed
!       computational space (m).
!
!  zrefsoil Reference height of the surface (below ground level) (m).
!
!  tsoilint(1:nzsoil)  Soil temperatures (K)
!  qsoilint(1:nzsoil)  Soil moisture (m**3/m**3)
!
!           If soilinit=1, then every tsoil and qsoil level must be
!                        explicitly defined in the input file below.
!
!  soilstrhopt  Grid soil stretching option.
!     = 0, no vertical stretching
!     = 1, vertical stretching with f=z**3 function for dz
!     = 2, vertical stretching with hyperbolic tangent (see User's Guide).
!   = 9, special for arps2wrf with NARR, SREF or NAM data, combined with
!        soilmodel_option = 2, to assign 6 levels as in WPS (all other
!        parameters under this category are void)
!        (F. Kong, Jan 2008)
!   = 10, Same as soilstrhopt = 9, but for processing ECMWF dataset,
!         which defines different soil layers as NCEP datasets.
!
!  NOTE THAT nzsoil must be 6 for soilstrhopt = 9 and soilstrhopt = 10.
!
!  soildzmin    Minimum vertical grid spacing in physical space (m). Used
!       if soilstrhopt = 1 or 2.
!
!  soildlayer1  Height (m) of the layer beneath which stretching is not applied.
!       0.0 =< dlayer1 < (nz-3)*dz
!
!  soildlayer2  Depth of the mid-layer with stretched vertical spacing (m)
!       0.0 =< dlayer2 < (nz-3)*dz and 0.0 =< dlayer1+dlayer2 < (nz-3)*dz
!       For consistency, dlayer2 is reset to: min(dlayer2,ztop-dlayer1).
!
!  soilstrhtune Tuning parameter used when soilstrhopt = 2.
!       A value between 0.2 and 5.0 is recommended. Stretching
!       becomes more linear as strhtune increases. Default value is 1.0.
!
!  sfcfmt   Format of data file containing surface characteristics.
!         = 1, Fortran unformatted (default);
!         = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed);
!         = 7, NetCDF format.
!
!  soilinit Soil model variable initialization option used when initopt.ne.2.
!
!         = 1, Soil model variables are initialized using input parameters;
!
!         = 2, Soil model variables are initialized using values found
!              in file soilinfl.
!              For variables missing in soilinfl, the values in initial
!              file inifile will be used when initopt=3. In another words,
!              the values in soilinfl take precedence over those in inifile.
!
!         = 3, As soilinit=2, except that the values found in inifile take
!              precedence over those found in soilinfl. Dimension for "nstyps"
!              in inifile must be the same as parameter "nstyp" below.
!
!         = 4, Soil temperature variables are initialized by adding
!              offsets to the surface air temperatue, while soil moisture
!              variables are initialized from given saturation rates.
!              The canopy water amount is initialized from its default
!              value, wetcanp0, though.
!
!         = 5, Soil model variables initialized using Mesonet data.
!                For this option:  radopt = 3,
!                                  sfcfmt = 2,
!                                  soilfmt = 2
!
!         This option is not used when initopt=2.
!         When initopt=2, data in the restart file will be used.
!
!  soilmodel_forced  Option for forcing radiation data with surface obs.
!         = 0,  Non-forced mode (default)
!         = 1,  Forced mode (Surface data must be available)
!                   (Likely used in conjunction with soilinit=5)
!
!  nstyp    The number of soil types per grid point.
!
!  ptslnd0  Initial land surface potential temperature (K).
!           Used by option soilinit=1.
!
!  ptswtr0  Initial water surface potential temperature over water (K).
!           Used by option soilinit=1.
!
!  wetcanp0 Initial canopy moisture. Used by option soilinit=1.
!
!  snowdpth0 Initial snow depth (m). Used by option soilinit=1.
!
!  ttprt    Offset of top soil layer temperature from sfc air temperature
!  tbprt    Offset of bottom soil layer temperature from sfc air temperature
!
!    NOTE: When soilmodel_option = 1, ttprt will be used as the surface
!          temperature offset and tbprt be used as the deep soil layer
!          temperature offset. When soilmodel_option = 2, the temperature
!          offset between the top soil layer and the bottom soil layer will
!          be interpolated linearly from ttprt and tbprt.
!
!  wgrat    Saturation rate of sfc soil moisture
!
!  w2rat    Saturation rate of deep soil moisture
!
!  soilinfl Data file containing the initial values of soil model variables
!          (ground surface temperature, deep soil temperature,
!           ground surface soil moisture, deep soil moisture, and
!           canopy moisture)
!
!  soilfmt  Format of data file containing initial values of soil model
!           variables.
!         = 1, Fortran unformatted (default)
!         = 2, OASIS testing
!         = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed)
!         = 7, NetCDF format
!
!  tsoil_offset Option for including seasonal deep and skin layer temperature
!               offset in the two-layer soil model.
!             = 0 Not included
!             = 1 Constant throughout the domain
!             = 2 Spatially dependent offset (not implemented yet)
!
!  tsoil_offset_amplitude The amplitude of the annual cycle of the difference
!             (offset) in deep and skin layer soil seasonal-mean temperatures
!
!  dtsfc    Time step for surface (soil) model integration. dtsfc =< dtbig.
!
!  Note: The above options are effective only when sfcphy = 3 or 4.
!
!  prtsoilflx  Option to add temperature and specific humidity perturbation
!              to sensible heat flux and latent heat flux
!              = 0, no
!              = 1, yes
!
!---------------------------------------------------------------------=*
 
 &soil_ebm
   sfcdat   = 2,
     styp     = 3,
     vtyp     = 10,
     lai0     = 0.31,
     roufns0  = 0.01,
     veg0     = 0.3,
 
     sfcdtfl = 'waku
     _d1_E2A.sfcdata',
       sfcfmt = 1,
 
   soilmodel_forced = 0,
     sitemeso = '../../arpsdata.dir/mts.dir/Meso',
     siteflux = '../../arpsdata.dir/mts.dir/Flux',
     siternet = '../../arpsdata.dir/mts.dir/Radd',
     sitesoil = '../../arpsdata.dir/mts.dir/Soil',
     siteveg =  '../../arpsdata.dir/mts.dir/Veg',
 
   soilmodel_option = 2,
     nzsoil   = 2,
     dzsoil   = 1.0,
     zrefsoil = 0.0,
     tsoilint(1)   =  283.2,
     tsoilint(2)   =  291.2,
     tsoilint(3)   =  293.65,
     tsoilint(4)   =  293.43,
     tsoilint(5)   =  292.76,
     qsoilint(1)   = 0.26,
     qsoilint(2)   = 0.2603,
     qsoilint(3)   = 0.2942,
     qsoilint(4)   = 0.3221,
     qsoilint(5) = 0.2979,
 
   soilstrhopt  = 0,
     soildzmin    =     0.01,
     soildlayer1  =     0.0,
     soildlayer2  =     1.0,
     soilstrhtune =     1.0,
 
   soilinit = 1,
     ptslnd0  = 293.0,
     ptswtr0  = 288.0,
     wetcanp0 = 0.00,
     snowdpth0 = 0.0,
     ttprt    = 0.0,
     tbprt    = 0.0,
     wgrat    = 0.7,
     w2rat    = 0.7,
 
     soilinfl = 'waku_d1_E2A.soilvar.000000',
       soilfmt = 1,
 
   nstyp  = 1,
 
   tsoil_offset = 0,
   tsoil_offset_amplitude = 2.5,
 
   dtsfc    = 3.0,
 
   prtsoilflx = 0,
 
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! Options for grid translation and cell-tracking.
!
! cltkopt  Option for performing cell-tracking (tracking positions of cells).
!         = 0, no cell-tracking,
!         = 1, cell-tracking on. If grdtrns=2, cltkopt will be forced to 1.
!
!         NOTE: Cell-tracking is NOT supported at this time.
!
! grdtrns = 0, No grid translation.
!         = 1, Grid translation based on user-specified domain translation
!              speed (umove,vmove). The speed does not change during the
!              simulation.
!         = 2, Grid translation based on results from the cell-tracking
!              algorithm.  Grid motion is such that center of mass of
!              cells is kept near center of grid.  Grid motion changes
!              during the simulation.
!         = 3, Grid translation based on results from the optimal scalar
!              pattern-translation algorithm.  Grid moves at "optimal"
!              patterm-translation speed.  Grid motion changes during
!              the simulation.
!
! umove    User-specified initial domain translation speed in x-dir.
! vmove    User-specified initial domain translation speed in y-dir.
!          They remain unchanged for grdtrns=1, and are adjusted
!          during the run for grdtrns=2 or 3.
!          They are not used when grdtrns=0.
!
!          Beginning with ARPS 5.2.6, all initial soundings (all options
!          of inibasopt) are subject to umove and vmove when
!          grdtrns .ne. 0.
!
! chkdpth  The domain depth over which scalar pattern translation is
!          computed when grdtrns = 3.
! twindow  The time window within which the average domain translation
!          speed is calculated. Used by option grdtrns=3.
!
! tceltrk  time interval between calls to the cell tracking routine.
! tcrestr  time required for the cell center to be restored to the
!          domain center.  Used when grdtrns=2.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &grdtrans
   cltkopt = 0,
     tceltrk = 120.0,
     tcrestr = 1800.0,
 
   grdtrns = 0,
     chkdpth = 2500.0,
     twindow = 300.0,
 
   umove   = 0.0,
   vmove   = 0.0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  History dump parameters.
!
!  hdmpopt = History data dump option.
!          = 1, linear dump, start from tstrdmp
!          = 2, dump at model times specified by user.
!
!  dmp_out_joined = 0/1   Flag indicating if, when the model is run in
!         distributed-memory-parallel mode (e.g., using MPI), the output
!         fields from different processors will be gathered and joined
!         first before being written out (into single files).
!         = 0, each processor writes out its own portion of data; the output
!              can be joined together later using the joinfiles program.
!         = 1, the output fields from different processors will be gathered
!              and joined first before being written out. The joinfiles
!              step is no longer needed.
!
!         Introduced 'bit' control since arps5.2.14. The bit order (uses decimal
!         integer instead of binary integer for simplicity) is
!         as this: "I A T S B R H", where
!            H stands for History files,
!            R for restart files,
!            B for Boundary files,
!            S for soil file,
!            T for terrain file and surface file,
!            A for arbitrary 2D/3D files,
!            I for increment files (ADAS or 3DVAR).
!
!         For example, "0010001" means terrain file and history files
!         will be joined, but restart files, boundary files and surface file
!         will be in split form. Note that this option only play a role in
!         MPI mode.
!
!   NOTE: See the restriction for "max_fopen" flag when dmp_out_joined = 1.
!         Joined-dump only works for GrADS, binary and HDF format.
!
!  hdmpfmt   History data dump format option.
!          = 0, no data dump is produced
!          = 1, unformatted binary data dump
!          = 3, NCSA HDF4 format data dump
!          = 7, NetCDF format
!          = 8, NetCDF format with data of all time levels in one file;
!               It is suitable for small domain and is provided for LEAD.
!          = 9, GrADS data dump
!          = 11, Vis5D data dump.
!
!  grbpkbit  Number of bits in packing GRIB data
!          = 16 (default)     -- lose precision badly
!          = 32 (recommended)
!    NOTE: GRIB data format is discouraged for ARPS history files.
!
!  hdfcompr  HDF4 compression option (for hdmpfmt=3).
!          = 0 (default), no compression
!          = 1, fast gzip compression
!          = 2, high gzip compression
!          = 3, adaptive or skipping Huffman compression
!          = 4-7, as above plus mapping reals to 16 bit integers.
!            Note that only options 0-2 work on Cray platforms.
!
!  thisdmp   time interval (s) between history data dumps when hdmpopt=1.
!            Choose 0.0 if no history data dump is desired.
!  tstrtdmp  time at which history dumps start.
!
!  numhdmp   number of history dumps specified by user for hdmpopt=2.
!            Choose 0 if no history data dump is desired.
!  hdmptim   array of maximum size 100 where the user specified history
!            dumping times are stored.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &history_dump
   hdmpopt    = 0,
     dmp_out_joined = 11111,
     hdmpfmt    = 1,
       grbpkbit   = 16,
       hdfcompr   = 2,
 
   thisdmp    = 3600.0,
   tstrtdmp   = 0.0,
 
   numhdmp    = 3,
     hdmptim(1) = 0.,
     hdmptim(2) = 3600.,
     hdmptim(3) = 7200.,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Output control parameters.
!
!  dirname   Name of directory into which output files are written.
!            It accepts two patterns for writing output files into individual
!            folders. One is to create saparate diretory for each forecast time
!            in seconds. For example,
!              dirname = './data%9T',
!            The program will create the following directories:
!              './data003600.00',
!              './data007200.00',
!              ...
!              etc.
!
!            Another pattern is for ensemble member when running ARPSEnKF.
!              dirname = './EN%3N',
!            The program will generate the following directories for each
!            ensemble member:
!              './EN001',
!              './EN002',
!              ...
!              etc. and
!              './ENfmean' for prior mean outputs
!              './ENamean' for post  mean outputs
!
!            If there is a paterrn present, the pattern must be the last component
!            of the path and user must has write priviledge on its immediate parent
!            folder.
!
!  exbcdmp   Flag to dump ARPS external boundary data files.
!          = 0, no EXBC dumping
!          = 1, EXBC dumping (Fortran unformatted)
!          = 3, HDF4 format
!          = 7, NetCDF format.
!
!  exbchdfcompr  HDF4 compression option (for exbcdmp=3).
!          = 0 (default), no compression
!          = 1, fast gzip compression
!          = 2, high gzip compression
!          = 3, adaptive or skipping Huffman compression
!          = 4-7, as above plus mapping reals to 16 bit integers.
!            Note that only options 0-2 work on Cray platforms.
!
!  extdadmp  Flag to dump the fields that contain external data array
!            interpolated to the current model time. When lbcopt.ne.2,
!            reset extdadmp to 0.
!
!  filcmprs  Option to compress the history dumping files.
!          = 0, history files not compressed
!          = 1, history files compressed
!  readyfl   Option to create a marker file (same name as the history dump
!            but with "_ready" appended to the end) to indicate that
!            writing of the history dump has completed.
!          = 0, do not create a ready file.
!          = 1, create a ready file;
!  grdout    Grid output option.
!          = 0, no grid array output in time-dependent history files;
!          = 1, grid arrays written in time-dependent history files.
!               (If hdmpfmt = 7 and will use IDV, set grdout = 1).
!  basout    Base state field output option.
!          = 0, no base state arrays time-dependent history files;
!          = 1, base state arrays written in time-dependent history files.
!          = 100, Turn off grid & base file output at initial time
!                 The default behavior of the arps program is to dump two
!                 files at initial time, grid & base file, time-dependent
!                 history file. For ARPSEnKF, it is not necessary to ouput
!                 grid & base file for all members. This option will turn
!                 off grid & base file output.
!          = 101, turn off grid & base file output, but output base state
!                 arrays in time-dependent history file.
!  varout    Perturbation fields output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no perturbation wind, pressure or pot. temperature output
!          = 1, perturbation wind, pressure and pot. temperature output.
!  mstout    Moist variable output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no moisture variables output
!          = 1, qv, qc, qr, qi, qs and qh output.
!  iceout    Ice variable outout option in history dump.
!          = 0, no ice variables output
!          = 1, qi, qs and qh output.
!  tkeout    TKE output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!  trbout    Turbulence field (km) output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no km output
!          = 1, km output
!  rainout   Option for surface accumulated rainfall array output.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!  sfcout    Soil model variable output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!  landout   Option for soil and vegetation property array output in
!            history dump.
!          = 0, no 
!          = 1, yes
!  prcout    Precipitation rates output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!  radout    Radiation arrays output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!  flxout    Surface fluxes output option in history dump.
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qcexout   Option for qc array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qrexout   Option for qr array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qiexout   Option for qi array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qsexout   Option for qs array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qhexout   Option for qh array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no
!          = 1, yes
!
!  qgexout   Option for qg array output in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no,
!          = 1, yes.
!
!  nqexout   Option for concentration number of hydrometeor arrays output
!            in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no,
!          = 1, yes.
!
!  zqexout   Option for reflectivity of hydrometeor arrays output
!            in EXBC file dump when exbcdmp.ne.0
!          = 0, no,
!          = 1, yes.
!
!  sfcdmp    Flag to dump ARPS surface data files
!          = 0, no surface data files
!          = 1, Fortran unformatted dumps
!          = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed) dumps
!          = 7, NetCDF format dumps
!
!  soildmp   Flag to dump ARPS soil data files
!          = 0, no soil data files
!          = 1, Fortran unformatted dumps
!          = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed) dumps
!          = 7, NetCDF format dumps
!
!  terndmp   Flag to dump ARPS terrain data file
!          = 0, no terrain data file
!          = 1, Fortran unformatted dumps
!          = 3, HDF4 (uncompressed) dumps
!          = 7, NetCDF format dumps
!
!  tfmtprt   time interval (s) between formatted print out.  Choose
!            0.0 if no print out is desired.
!  trstout   time interval between restart data dumps
!  tmaxmin   time interval between max/min statistics calc.
!  tenergy   time interval between energy statistics calc.
!
!  imgopt    HDF image dumping option, 0 or 1.
!  timgdmp   time interval between HDF image dumps.
!
!  pltopt    Graphic plotting option, 0 or 1.
!  tplots    time interval between graphic plotting calls.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &output
   dirname  = './',
   filcmprs = 0,
   readyfl  = 0,
 
   basout   = 1,
   grdout   = 1 ,
   varout   = 1,
   mstout   = 1,
   iceout   = 1,
   tkeout   = 1,
   trbout   = 1,
   rainout  = 1,
   sfcout   = 1,
   landout  = 1,
   prcout   = 1,
   radout   = 1,
   flxout   = 1,
 
   exbcdmp  = 1,
   exbchdfcompr = 5,
   extdadmp = 1,
     qcexout  = 1,
     qrexout  = 1,
     qiexout  = 1,
     qsexout  = 1,
     qhexout  = 1,
     qgexout  = 0,
     nqexout  = 0,
     zqexout  = 0,
 
   sfcdmp   = 0,
   soildmp  = 0,
   terndmp  = 0,
 
   tfmtprt  = 0.0,
   trstout  = 10800.0,
   tmaxmin  = 60.0,
   tenergy  = 0.0,
 
   imgopt   = 0,
     timgdmp  = 60.0,
 
   pltopt   = 0,
     tplots   = 600.0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Debug information printing level.
!
!  lvldbg    Level of debug information printing.
!          =0, no printing;
!          =1, Print variables in big t-step;
!          =2, Print forcings in big t-step;
!          =3, Print variables in small t-step;
!          =4, Print forcings in small t-step;
!          =5, Print individual forcing terms and misc. info.
!          >90, Print verbose outputs for most of the programs,
!               adas, ext2arps etc.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &debug
   lvldbg = 0,
 /
 
!=======================================================================
!
!     ADAS analysis input parameters (Some are used by ARPS3DVAR also)
!
!=======================================================================
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  ADAS (or 3DVAR) increment output
!  For use in ARPS model nudging scheme.
!
!   incrdmp  Option to write ADAS analysis increments to a file
!            = 0  Don't create increment file
!            = 1  write increment file (unformatted IEEE binary)
!            = 3  write HDF uncompressed format increment file
!
!   incrhdfcompr  HDF4 compression option (for incrdmp=3)
!          = 0 (default), no compression
!          = 1, fast gzip compression
!          = 2, high gzip compression
!          = 3, adaptive or skipping Huffman compression
!          = 4-7, as above plus mapping reals to 16 bit integers
!            Note that only options 0-2 work on Cray platforms.
!
!   incdmpf  Character*133
!            Name of increment output file
!   uincdmp  Option to write u analysis increments if incrdmp = 1
!            = 0  Don't write u increments
!            = 1  Write u increments
!
!   And similarly for the other analysis variables specified by
!             vincdmp,wincdmp,pincdmp,ptincdmp,qvincdmp,
!             qcincdmp,qrincdmp,qiincdmp,qsincdmp,qhincdmp
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &incr_out
    incrdmp = 0,
    incrhdfcompr = 0,
    incdmpf='mar3018z.incr',
    uincdmp = 1,
    vincdmp = 1,
    wincdmp = 0,
    pincdmp = 1,
    ptincdmp= 1,
    qvincdmp= 1,
    qcincdmp= 1,
    qrincdmp= 1,
    qiincdmp= 0,
    qsincdmp= 0,
    qhincdmp= 0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!     npass    number of analysis iterations
!     sprdist  superob distance (m)
!              closer pairs of sfc stations are made into superob
!              this should be about 2 times dx
!     wlim     min horizontal correlation -- establishes max horiz radius
!     zwlim    min vertical   correlation -- establishes max vert radius
!                             for iterations where vertical correlation is
!                             determined by height separation
!     thwlim   min vertical   correlation -- establishes max vert radius
!                             for iterations where vertical correlation is
!                             determined by potential temperature separation
!
!     spradopt Option for correcting superadiabatic layers.
!              = 0  No correction applied
!                   Could result in instabilities developing in the ARPS model
!                   if the analysis creates superadiabatic layers.
!              = 1  Correction applied beginning at the top,
!                   cooling levels below where superadiabatic
!              = 2  Correction applied beginning at the surface,
!                   warming levels above where superadiabatic
!              Option 2 provides greater fidelity to surface data,
!              but may result in overwarming of the boundary layer
!              For analysis-only applications, use spradopt = 0.
!
!     ccatopt  Option for applying correlation categories based on
!              background data.
!              = 0  Isotropic correlation functions used.
!              = 1  Correlation is reduced between dry areas
!                   and areas of precipitation, especially where the
!                   cumulus parameterization is activated.
!              ccatopt=1 recommended when ADAS is run using a
!              background field from an ADAS run with cumulus
!              parameterization activated.   Otherwise, use ccatopt=0.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &adas_const
   npass = 4,
   sprdist = 15000.,
   wlim = 1.E-04,
   zwlim = 1.E-03,
   thwlim = 1.E-03,
   spradopt = 2,
   ccatopt = 1,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!  Variables associated with hydrostatic and wind adjustments.
!  NOTE: this namelist block is used by both ADAS and EXT2ARPS.
!
!    hydradj    Option for adjusting pressure to balance gravity
!               and buoyancy to force dw/dt=0 for output field.
!               = 0    no correction
!               = 1    correction applied beginning at surface
!               = 2    correction applied beginning at top
!               = 3    hydrostatic equation integrated from
!                      surface for total-p, pbar subtracted.
!               hydradj=0 suggested
!
!     wndadj   Option for adjusting interpolated winds.
!               = 0  no adjustment from read-in values
!                    if w is not read-in, it is set to zero
!               = 1  w set so that wcont = 0, no adjustment to u or v
!               = 2  w set using integrated divergence with OBrien
!                    correction to satisfy top and bottom bc
!               = 3  as in 2, but u and v adjusted for
!                    to remove 3-D divergence.
!
!    obropt     O'Brien adjustment option.  Determines
!               distribution of mean divergence error used to
!               enforce upper boundary condition of w=0
!               = 1  Linearly in computational z. (default)
!               = 2  Linearly in physical z.
!               = 3  Linearly in potential temperature.
!
!               Adding 10 to the previously listed options makes w=0 at
!               the level whose mean height is set by obrzero (meters).
!
!               obropt=11 is recommended for most
!               ext2arps applications to large-scale models
!
!     obrzero   Height to set w=0 in O'Brien correction routines.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 &adjust
   hydradj = 0,
   wndadj = 2,
   obropt = 12,
   obrzero = 12000.,
 /
 
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  Variables affecting the use of radar data in the analysis step
!  and in the microphysical (local) adjustment routine.
!
!     raduvobs   Switch for using radial winds in analysis step
!                 = 0  Do not use radial winds
!                 = 1  Use radial winds
!
!     radrhobs   Switch to create pseudo-obs of high relative humidty
!                for use in qv analysis (effect will be spread in space).
!                where reflectivity is high
!                 = 0  Do not create high-RH obs from reflectivity data
!                 = 1  Create obs
!
!     radistride Horizontal stride for resampling radar data during successive
!                corrections portion of analysis.  Full resolution data
!                are always used in cloud analysis.
!                = 1   All data are used
!                = 2   Every-other data column used mod((i+j),2)=0
!                = n   Every-nth data pt used mod((i+j),n)=0
!
!     radkstride As in radistride, except in vertical.
!
!     refrh      Reflectivity threshold (dBZ) to use in creating high-RH obs
!                (used when radrhobs = 1)
!
!     rhradobs   Relative humidity (0.0-1.0) to apply to pseudo-obs
!                If the background humidity is higher, no ob is created
!                (scheme cannot dry air).  (used when radrhobs = 1)
!
!  Variables affecting the local adjustment of microphysical variables
!  based on radar reflectivity.  Note: This approach to estimating hydrometeors
!  is retained for comparison testing, but the approach in the cloud analysis is
!  recommended (radcldopt=0 and cloudopt=1).
!
!     radcldopt= Option for calling routine to make local adjustments
!                 = 0  Do not call RADMCRO, following options are OFF
!                 = 1  Call RADMCRO
!
!     radqvopt = Switch for using reflectivity to locally adjust
!                (no spreading via analysis) relative humidity (qv)
!                where reflectivity is high
!                 = 0  Do not adjust qv locally based on reflectivity data
!                 = 1  Adjust qv
!
!     radqcopt = Switch for using reflectivity to locally adjust
!                (no spreading via analysis) cloud water (qc)
!                where reflectivity is high
!                 = 0  Do not adjust qc locally based on reflectivity data
!                 = 1  Adjust qc using fixed cloud water mixing ratio
!                 = 2  Adjust qc using cloud water mixing ratio that is
!                      a function of observed reflectivity.
!
!     radqropt = Switch for using reflectivity to locally adjust
!                (no spreading via analysis) rain water (qr)
!                where reflectivity is high
!                 = 0  Do not adjust qr locally based from reflectivity data
!                 = 1  Adjust qr using rain water mixing ratio that is
!                      a function of observed reflectivity.
!
!     radptopt = Switch for adjusting potential temperature to create
!                a net zero buoyancy change in combination with the weight
!                added by increasing qr and qc and/or the weight removed by
!                increasing qv.
!                 = 0  Do not adjust potential temperature
!                 = 1  Adjust temperature for rain and cloud water only
!                 = 2  Adjust temperature for humidity adjustment only
!                 = 3  Adjust for ALL changes to qr, qc, and qv
!
!     refsat     Reflectivity threshold (dBZ) to use in local
!                "saturation" adjustment.
!
!     rhrad      Relative humidity (0.0-1.0) to apply in local satuartion
!                adjustment.  No adjustment is made if background humidity
!                is higher.
!
!     refcld     Reflectivity threshold (dBZ) to use in local
!                cloud water adjustment.
!
!     cldrad     Fixed value of cloud water mixing ratio (gr/gr) to use
!                when radqcopt=1.
!
!     ceilopt    Option for limiting ceiling (cloud base) in applying the
!                radar-based local adjustments.
!                 = 0   No ceiling limit (surface)
!                 = 1   Ceiling limited by fixed height AGL
!                 = 2   Ceiling limited by the LCL of a surface-based parcel
!
!     ceilmin    Minimum ceiling (m AGL) for ceilopt=1.
!
!     dzfill     Vertical distance (m) across which two adjacent non-zero
!                reflectivities will be "filled" -- to account for vertical
!                gaps in the radar coverage pattern.
!
!     refrain    Reflectivity threshold (dBZ) to use in local
!                rain water adjustment.
!
!     cldsetrat  Ratio (0.0-1.0) of rain and cloud water adjustment applied to
!                the radar-reflectivity equivalent value of rain and cloud
!                water.  Used when radqcopt=2 or radqropt=2.
!
!     cldreflim  Upper bound on reflectivity (dBZ) to use in calculating the
!                rain and cloud water when radqcopt=2 or radqropt=2.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &adas_radaropt
   raduvobs = 0,
   radrhobs = 0,
   radistride = 2,
   radkstride = 2,
   refrh = 25.,
   rhradobs = 0.90,
 
   radcldopt = 0,
   radqvopt = 1,
   radqcopt = 1,
   radqropt = 1,
   radptopt = 1,
   refsat = 25.,
   rhrad = 0.90,
   refcld = 30.,
   cldrad = 0.001,
   ceilopt = 2,
   ceilmin = 1500.,
   dzfill = 3000.,
   refrain = 40.,
   radsetrat = 0.50,
   radreflim = 45.,
   radptgain = 1.1,
 /
 
!----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!     ADAS Complex Cloud diagnosis
!     Derived from LAPS cloud analysis with modifications
!     Reference:  Zhang et al, 1998, Brewster 2002
!
!     Using surface observations (SAO, METAR), radar and satellite
!     determine 3-d cloud coverage, and estimate type.  Adjust
!     cloud and rainwater fields and estimate w.
!
!     Operates separately (after) the radar cloud and rainwater
!     assignment scheme (if activiated).
!
!     cloudopt=  Option for calling routine for complex cloud analysis
!                 = 0  Do not run complex cloud analysis, following
!                      options are OFF
!                 = 1  Run complex cloud analysis using all possible
!                      data sources (surface, radar, and satellite)
!                 = 2  Run complex cloud analysis using RADAR data only
!                 = 3  Run complex cloud analysis using warm-rain only
!                 = 4  Run complex cloud analysis in cycling mode.
!                      Precip from radar assigned according to background
!                      species distributions.  In cycling, start with
!                      cloudopt=1, then use cloudopt=4 for subsequent cycles.
!
!     clddiag    Option for diagnostic printing from cloud routine
!                 = 0   No cloud diagnostics
!                 = 1   Cloud diagnostic
!
!     cld_files  Option to output files containing intermediate cloud
!                fields (cloud base, cloud top, ceiling, and column VIL)
!                into separate files (not ARPS output files)
!                 = 0   Do not write cloud files
!                 = 1   Write cloud files
!
!     range_cld  Cut-off radius (m) for Barnes of cloud cover.
!
!     refthr1    Reflectivity (dBZ) threshold for setting clouds at
!                heights below hgt_thresh_ref.  See notes under
!                hgt_thresh_ref.
!
!     refthr2    Reflectivity (dBZ) threshold for setting clouds at
!                heights above hgt_thresh_ref.  See notes under
!                hgt_thresh_ref.
!
!     hgtrefthr  Height (m AGL) of changeover from using ref_base1 to
!                using ref_base2.  Generally below hgt_thresh_ref,
!                ref_base1 is set to eliminate false ground clutter,
!                and above ref_base2 is set to eliminate false
!                insect or non-precipitation scatter returns.
!
!     thresh_cvr Threshold of sky cover (0.0-1.0) to set cloud water and
!                vertical velocity.  Below thresh_cvr no cloud water or
!                w adjustments are made.
!
!     bgqcopt    Option to create cloud water (qc or qi) in the cloud
!                analysis in areas of high relative humidity in the
!                background field.
!                Note, the qc or qi created by this option is not passed
!                to the output file unless cldqcopt=1 (see below).
!                 = 0   Do not use background RH for qc
!                 = 1   Create qc,qi from background RH
!
!     cldqvopt   Option to apply humidity adjustments to output
!                 = 0   Do not use qv adjustments
!                 = 1   Use cloud qv
!
!     rh_thr1    lower end value of RH for the linear cldcvr_to_RH
!                relationship.
!
!     cvr2rh_thr1   lower end value of cloud cover for the linear
!                   cldcvr_to_RH relationship.
!
!     rh_thr2    upper end value of RH for the linear cldcvr_to_RH
!                relationship.
!
!     cvr2rh_thr2   upper end value of cloud cover for the linear
!                   cldcvr_to_RH relationship.
!
!     cldqcopt   Option to apply cloud water adjustments to output
!                Where temperature is cold enough, qi
!                can also be affected.
!                 = 0   Do not use qc and qi adjustments
!                 = 1   Use cloud analysis qc and qi
!
!     qvslimit_2_qc  upper limit for analyzed qc to be put into
!                    the output:
!                    qc =< qvslimit_2_qc * qvs
!
!     cldqropt   Option to apply rain water adjustments to output
!                Where temperature is cold enough, qs and qh
!                can also be affected.
!                 = 0   Do not make qr,qs and qh adjustments
!                 = 1   Adjust qr,qs and qh using Kessler eqs
!                 = 2   Adjust qr,qs and qh using Ferrier eqs
!
!     qrlimit        upper limit on analyzed qr (unit: kg/kg)
!
!     frac_qr_2_qc   Fraction of qr converted into qc (for initiali-
!                      -zing and spinup model)
!
!     cldptopt   Option to apply potential temp adjustments to output.
!
!                 = 0   Do not use pt adjustments
!                 = 1   Adjust pt-field to compensate for the change made
!                       to buoyancy by cloud and precipitate fields.
!                 = 2   Adjust pt-field to compensate for the change made
!                       to buoyancy by humididy, cloud and precipitate
!                       fields.
!                 = 3   Adjust pt-field to account for the latent heating
!                       from cloud water/ice.
!                 = 4   Adjust pt-field to account for the latent heating
!                       from cloud water/ice only where vertical vel > 0.
!                 = 5   Adjust pt-field where clouds are analyzed and the
!                       vertical velocity is > -0.2 for a moist-adiabatic
!                       profile diluted by mixing.  For negative w a
!                       fraction of the adjustment is applied ramping from
!                       0.0 at -0.2 m/s to 1.0 at 0.0.
!                 = 6   Adjust pt-field where clouds are analyzed and the
!                       vertical velocity is > 0.0 for a moist-adiabatic
!                       profile diluted by mixing.
!
!     frac_qw_2_pt  Gain factor for the potential temp. adjustment
!                   based on buoyancy.(unit: nondimensional)
!                   *used only when cldptopt=1, and 2.
!
!     frac_qc_2_lh  Gain factor for the potential temp. adjustment
!                   based on latent heating.(unit: nondimensional)
!                   *used only when cldptopt > 2
!
!     max_lh_2_pt  The upper limit on the amount of potential temp
!                  adjustment based on latent heating  (unit: K)
!                   *used only when cldptopt > 2
!
!     cldwopt    Option to apply w adjustments to output
!                Not recomended for ARPS model runs
!                 = 0   Do not use w adjustments
!                 = 1   Use cloud w
!
!     wmhr_Cu    Parameter ((m/s)/m) used to set the maximum vertical
!                velocity in cumulus clouds.  Maximum vertical
!                velocity (parabola) is set based on wmhr_cu and cloud
!                depth.
!                w_max=wmhr_cu*depth
!
!     wmhr_Sc    Parameter ((m/s)/m) used to set the maximum vertical
!                velocity in stratocumulus clouds.  Maximum vertical
!                velocity (parabola) is set based on wmhr_cu and cloud
!                depth.
!                w_max=wmhr_cu*depth
!
!     wc_St      Constant vertical velocity (m/s) to assign to
!                  stratus clouds.
!
!     smth_opt   Option to apply smoothing on the analyzed moisture
!                and in-cloud w fields
!                 = 0   Do not smooth
!                 = 1   Apply 2D (horizontal) smoothing
!                 = 2   Apply 3D smoothing
!
!     nirfiles   Number of IR files to be used, set to zero if no IR
!                data are available
!
!     ir_fname   Name of remapped IR satellite data file(s)
!                Set to 'NULL' or a dummy filename if no IR data are
!                available.
!     ir_calname Name of IR calibration file(s) for each IR file used.
!
!     nvisfiles  Number of visible satellite files to be used, set to
!                zero if no visible data are available
!
!     vis_fname  Name of remapped visible satellite data file
!                Set to 'NULL' or a dummy filename if no vis data are
!                available.
!
!     vis_calname Name of visible calibration file(s) for each
!                 vis file used.
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &adas_cloud
   cloudopt = 4,
   clddiag = 0,
   cld_files = 0,
 
   range_cld = 100.0e03,
 
   refthr1 = 20.0,
   refthr2 = 15.0,
   hgtrefthr = 2000.0,
 
   thresh_ref = 0.0,
   thresh_cvr = 0.45,
 
   bgqcopt = 1,
 
   cldqvopt = 1,
   rh_thr1 = 0.5,
   cvr2rh_thr1 = 0.2,
   rh_thr2 = 1.00,
   cvr2rh_thr2 = 0.7,
 
   cldqcopt = 1,
   qvslimit_2_qc = 1.0,
   cldqropt = 1,
   qrlimit = 0.005,
   frac_qr_2_qc = 0.0,
 
   cldwopt = 0,
   wmhr_Cu = 0.0005,
   wmhr_Sc = 0.00005,
   wc_St = 0.05,
 
   cldptopt = 5,
   frac_qw_2_pt = 0.5,
   frac_qc_2_lh = 1.0,
   max_lh_2_pt = 8.0,
 
   smth_opt = 1,
 
   nirfiles     = 0,
   ir_fname(1)  = '/scratch/kbrews/may03/may0302km_goes08.satctt.hdf4',
   ircalname(1) = 'data/adas/goes08ch4.adastab',
 
   nvisfiles    = 0,
   vis_fname(1) = '/scratch/kbrews/may03/may0302km_goes08.satalb.hdf4',
   viscalname(1)= 'data/adas/goes08vis.adastab',
 
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!     ADAS analysis type and correlation specification
!
!     ianxtyp  analysis type for each pass  (integer array)
!              11  Barnes, vertical correlation from height separation
!              12  Barnes, vertical correlation from theta  separation
!              21  Bratseth, vertical correlation from height separation
!              22  Bratseth, vertical correlation from theta separation
!              ianxtyp=21 recommended
!
!     sfcqcrng horizontal distance parameter for Barnes analysis used
!              in surface data quality control routine.
!
!     xyrange  horizontal range (m) for correlation model for each pass.
!
!     kpvar    variable-specific range for correlation model
!              so that range for variable is kpvar*range above
!              index:
!              1=u wind component
!              2=v wind component
!              3=pressure
!              4=potential temperature
!              5=rhstar (humidity)
!
!     zrange   vertical range for correlation model in height(m)
!              for each pass (real array)
!
!     thrange  vertical range for correlation model in theta (K)
!              for each pass (real array)
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &adas_typ
   ianxtyp(1) = 21,
   ianxtyp(2) = 21,
   ianxtyp(3) = 21,
   ianxtyp(4) = 21,
   ianxtyp(5) = 21,
   ianxtyp(6) = 21,
   ianxtyp(7) = 21,
   ianxtyp(8) = 21,
 /
 
 &adas_range
   sfcqcrng = 100.E03,
   xyrange(1) = 300.E03,
   xyrange(2) = 120.E03,
   xyrange(3) = 120.E03,
   xyrange(4) = 80.E03,
   xyrange(5) = 80.E03,
   xyrange(6) = 80.E03,
   xyrange(7) = 20.E03,
   xyrange(8) = 20.E03,
 /
 
 &adas_kpvar
   kpvar(1) = 0.9,
   kpvar(2) = 0.9,
   kpvar(3) = 1.0,
   kpvar(4) = 1.0,
   kpvar(5) = 0.9,
 /
 
 &adas_zrange
   zrange(1) = 500.,
   zrange(2) = 300.,
   zrange(3) = 200.,
   zrange(4) = 150.,
   zrange(5) = 150.,
   zrange(6) = 150.,
   zrange(7) = 150.,
   zrange(8) = 150.,
 /
 
 &adas_thrng
   thrng(1) = 5.0,
   thrng(2) = 4.0,
   thrng(3) = 3.0,
   thrng(4) = 2.0,
   thrng(5) = 2.0,
   thrng(6) = 2.0,
   thrng(7) = 2.0,
   thrng(8) = 2.0,
 /
 
 &adas_trnrng
   trnropt(1) = 1,
   trnropt(2) = 1,
   trnropt(3) = 1,
   trnropt(4) = 1,
   trnropt(5) = 1,
   trnropt(6) = 1,
   trnropt(7) = 1,
   trnropt(8) = 1,
   trnrcst(1) = 100.,
   trnrcst(2) = 100.,
   trnrcst(3) = 100.,
   trnrcst(4) = 100.,
   trnrcst(5) = 100.,
   trnrcst(6) = 100.,
   trnrcst(7) = 100.,
   trnrcst(8) = 100.,
   trnrng(1) = 1.2,
   trnrng(2) = 1.2,
   trnrng(3) = 1.2,
   trnrng(4) = 1.2,
   trnrng(5) = 1.2,
   trnrng(6) = 1.2,
   trnrng(7) = 1.2,
   trnrng(8) = 1.2,
 /
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!     ADAS data files and sources
!
!     backerrfil  Name of file containing background error statistics
!
!     nsngfil  number of single-level data files
!              nsngfil <= mx_sng_file (mx_sng_file set in adas.inc)
!     sngfname name of single-level data file(s) (character*132 array)
!     sngtmchk name of single-level data file to be used for the
!              time consistency check for surface data.  Generally this
!              is a file from a previous reporting period (e.g., one
!              hour before the time of the data in sngfname).
!
!     Following are repeated for each data SOURCE in the data file(s).
!     Note that a single-level file can contain one or more sources.
!     Largest index, isrc,  used must be less than or equal to nsrc_sng
!     (nsrc_sng set in adas.inc).
!       srcsng(isrc)
!                Name of this source (character*8 array)
!       sngerrfil (isrc)
!                Name of file containing data error statistics
!                (character*132 array)
!       iusesng(isrc,ipass)
!                Flag for whether to use single-level data on each pass.
!                Unnatural "bullseyes" can result when surface data are
!                sparse and the xyrange variable is small, appropriate for
!                use with radar data only.
!                = 1  Use single-level source on pass number ipass
!                = 0  Do not use sng-lvl source on pass number ipass
!
!     nuafil   number of multiple-level data file(s)
!              nuafil <= mx_ua_file (mx_ua_file set in adas.inc)
!     uafname  name of multiple-level data file(s) (character*132 array)
!
!     Following are repeated for each data SOURCE in the data file(s).\
!     Generally multiple-level data files contain only one source, but
!     several files may contain the same source.  Largest index, isrc,
!     specified here must be less than or equal to nsrc_ua
!     (nsrc_ua set in adas.inc).
!       srcua(isrc)
!                Name of this source (character*8 array)
!       uaerrfil (isrc)
!                Name of file containing data error statistics
!                (character*132 array)
!       iuseua(isrc,ipass)
!                Flag for whether to use sounding data on each pass.
!                Unnatural "bullseyes" can result when soundings are sparse
!                and the xyrange variable is small, appropriate for
!                surface and/or radar data.
!                = 1  Use sounding data on pass number ipass
!                = 0  Do not use sounding data on pass number ipass
!
!     nradfil  number of radar files
!     nradfil <= mx_rad_file (mx_rad_file set in adas.inc)
!     radfname name of radar files (character*132 array)
!
!     Following are repeated for each data SOURCE in the data file(s).
!     Each radar file contains data from one radar, hence a single
!     radar source, but many files may be from the same source.  Largest
!     index, isrc, specified here must be less than or equal to nsrc_rad
!     (nsrc_rad set in adas.inc).
!       srcrad(isrc)
!                Name of this source (character*8 array)
!       raderrfil (isrc)
!                Name of file containing data error statistics
!                (character*132 array)
!       iuserad  Flag for whether to use radar (refl and vr) data on each pass.
!                Radar data are most effective when the scale-length has
!                been reduced to 5-15km (through xyrange).  Using radar data
!                can slow ADAS considerably.
!                = 1  Use radar data on pass number ipass
!                = 0  Do not use radar data on pass number ipass
!
!     nretfil  number of files containing radar retrieval data
!     retfname name of radar retrieval files (character*132 array)
!
!     Following are repeated for each data SOURCE in the data file(s).
!     Each radar file contains data from one radar, hence a single
!     retrieval source, but many files may be from the same source.  Largest
!     index, isrc, specified here must be less than or equal to nsrc_ret
!     (nsrc_ret set in adas.inc).
!       srcret(isrc)
!                Name of this source (character*8 array)
!       reterrfil (isrc)
!                Name of file containing data error statistics
!                (character*132 array)
!       iuseret  Flag for whether to use radar retrieval data on each pass.
!                Radar data are most effective when the scale-length has
!                been reduced to 5-15km (through xyrange).  Using numerous
!                radar retrieval data can slow ADAS considerably.
!                = 1  Use retrieval data on pass number ipass
!                = 0  Do not use retrievals on pass number ipass
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &adas_backerf
   backerrfil = 'data/adas/ruc3herr.adastab',
 /
 
 &adas_sng
   nsngfil = 2,
   sngfname(1)='/work/study/19990503/lapsprd/sao/sao199905032200.lso',
   sngtmchk(1)='/work/study/19990503/lapsprd/sao/sao199905032100.lso',
   sngfname(2)='/work/study/19990503/lapsprd/okmeso/okmeso199905032200.lso',
   sngtmchk(2)='/work/study/19990503/lapsprd/okmeso/okmeso199905032100.lso',
 
   blackfil='data/adas/blacklist.sfc',
   srcsng(1)='SA',
      sngerrfil(1)='data/adas/saoerr.adastab',
      iusesng(1,1)=0,iusesng(1,2)=1,iusesng(1,3)=1,iusesng(1,4)=1,
      iusesng(1,5)=1,iusesng(1,6)=1,iusesng(1,7)=1,iusesng(1,8)=1,
   srcsng(2)='MESO',
      sngerrfil(2)='data/adas/mesoerr.adastab',
      iusesng(2,1)=0,iusesng(2,2)=1,iusesng(2,3)=1,iusesng(2,4)=1,
      iusesng(2,5)=1,iusesng(2,6)=1,iusesng(2,7)=1,iusesng(2,8)=1,
   srcsng(3)='MOBLM',
      sngerrfil(3)='data/adas/moblmerr.adastab',
      iusesng(3,1)=0,iusesng(3,2)=1,iusesng(3,3)=1,iusesng(3,4)=1,
      iusesng(3,5)=1,iusesng(3,6)=1,iusesng(3,7)=1,iusesng(3,8)=1,
   srcsng(4)='ARMMN',
      sngerrfil(4)='data/adas/armmnerr.adastab',
      iusesng(4,1)=0,iusesng(4,2)=1,iusesng(4,3)=1,iusesng(4,4)=1,
      iusesng(4,5)=1,iusesng(4,6)=1,iusesng(4,7)=1,iusesng(4,8)=1,
   srcsng(5)='SYNOP',
      sngerrfil(5)='data/adas/synoperr.adastab',
      iusesng(5,1)=0,iusesng(5,2)=1,iusesng(5,3)=1,iusesng(5,4)=1,
      iusesng(5,5)=1,iusesng(5,6)=1,iusesng(5,7)=1,iusesng(5,8)=1,
   srcsng(6)='SHIP',
      sngerrfil(6)='data/adas/shiperr.adastab',
      iusesng(6,1)=0,iusesng(6,2)=1,iusesng(6,3)=1,iusesng(6,4)=1,
      iusesng(6,5)=1,iusesng(6,6)=1,iusesng(6,7)=1,iusesng(6,8)=1,
   srcsng(7)='BUOY',
      sngerrfil(7)='data/adas/buoyerr.adastab',
      iusesng(7,1)=0,iusesng(7,2)=1,iusesng(7,3)=1,iusesng(7,4)=1,
      iusesng(7,5)=1,iusesng(7,6)=1,iusesng(7,7)=1,iusesng(7,8)=1,
 /
 
 &adas_ua
   nuafil = 1,
   uafname(1)='/data1/archive/lapsprd/snd/951591500.snd',
   uafname(2)='/data1/archive/lapsprd/pro/951591500.pro',
   srcua(1)='NWS RAOB',
      uaerrfil(1)='data/adas/raoberr.adastab',
      iuseua(1,1)=1,iuseua(1,2)=1,iuseua(1,3)=0,iuseua(1,4)=0,
      iuseua(1,5)=0,iuseua(1,6)=0,iuseua(1,7)=0,iuseua(1,8)=0,
   srcua(2)='FCLASS',
      uaerrfil(2)='data/adas/fclasserr.adastab',
      iuseua(2,1)=1,iuseua(2,2)=1,iuseua(2,3)=0,iuseua(2,4)=0,
      iuseua(2,5)=0,iuseua(2,6)=0,iuseua(2,7)=0,iuseua(2,8)=0,
   srcua(3)='MCLASS',
      uaerrfil(3)='data/adas/mclasserr.adastab',
      iuseua(3,1)=1,iuseua(3,2)=1,iuseua(3,3)=0,iuseua(3,4)=0,
      iuseua(3,5)=0,iuseua(3,6)=0,iuseua(3,7)=0,iuseua(3,8)=0,
   srcua(4)='WPDN PRO',
      uaerrfil(4)='data/adas/wpdnerr.adastab',
      iuseua(4,1)=1,iuseua(4,2)=1,iuseua(4,3)=0,iuseua(4,4)=0,
      iuseua(4,5)=0,iuseua(4,6)=0,iuseua(4,7)=0,iuseua(4,8)=0,
   srcua(5)='BLPROF',
      uaerrfil(5)='data/adas/blproferr.adastab',
      iuseua(5,1)=1,iuseua(5,2)=1,iuseua(5,3)=0,iuseua(5,4)=0,
      iuseua(5,5)=0,iuseua(5,6)=0,iuseua(5,7)=0,iuseua(5,8)=0,
 /
 
 &adas_radar
   nradfil = 1,
   radfname(1) = 'KLTX.950507.1756',
   srcrad(1)='88D-AII',
      raderrfil(1)='data/adas/rad88Derr.adastab',
      iuserad(1,1)=0,iuserad(1,2)=0,iuserad(1,3)=0,iuserad(1,4)=0,
      iuserad(1,5)=0,iuserad(1,6)=0,iuserad(1,7)=0,iuserad(1,8)=0,
   srcrad(2)='88D-NIDS',
      raderrfil(2)='data/adas/radnidserr.adastab',
      iuserad(2,1)=0,iuserad(2,2)=0,iuserad(2,3)=0,iuserad(2,4)=0,
      iuserad(2,5)=0,iuserad(2,6)=0,iuserad(2,7)=0,iuserad(2,8)=0,
   srcrad(3)='CASA-IP1',
      raderrfil(3)='data/adas/radcasaerr.adastab',
      iuserad(3,1)=0,iuserad(3,2)=0,iuserad(3,3)=0,iuserad(3,4)=0,
      iuserad(3,5)=0,iuserad(3,6)=0,iuserad(3,7)=0,iuserad(3,8)=0,
   srcrad(4)='TDWR',
      raderrfil(4)='data/adas/radtdwrerr.adastab',
      iuserad(4,1)=0,iuserad(4,2)=0,iuserad(4,3)=0,iuserad(4,4)=0,
      iuserad(4,5)=0,iuserad(4,6)=0,iuserad(4,7)=0,iuserad(4,8)=0,
   srcrad(5)='88D-POL',
      raderrfil(5)='data/adas/rad88dperr.adastab',
      iuserad(5,1)=0,iuserad(5,2)=0,iuserad(5,3)=0,iuserad(5,4)=0,
      iuserad(5,5)=0,iuserad(5,6)=0,iuserad(5,7)=0,iuserad(5,8)=0,
 /
 
 &adas_retrieval
   nretfil = 0,
   retfname(1) = 'KTLXret.960526.1700',
   srcret(1)='88D-RET',
      reterrfil(1)='data/adas/ret88Derr.adastab',
      iuseret(1,1)=0,iuseret(1,2)=0,iuseret(1,3)=0,iuseret(1,4)=0,
      iuseret(1,5)=0,iuseret(1,6)=0,iuseret(1,7)=0,iuseret(1,8)=0,
 /
 
!=======================================================================
!
! Additional parameters for program EXT2ARPS
!
!=======================================================================
 
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!    EXTDFILE   Namelist used by EXT2ARPS program (not by
!               ARPS) for the external boundary data pre-processing.
!
!    NOTE: EXT2ARPS interpolates EXTernal model data to the ARPS grid, and
!          works with a wide variety of operational and research external
!          models (see extdopt below).  EXT2ARPS creates the artificial
!          "ghost" boundary points that are needed for the ARPS model
!          lateral and vertical boundary conditions and can apply some
!          balance conditions to the initial condition (balancing the
!          w field with u,v for example - see wndadj above). Because of
!          mis-matches between terrain heights and variations in the
!          resolution of terrain, a number of assumptions have to be
!          made about the fields and how to create the most physically
!          reasonable interpolated state from the given data and also
!          make the proper BC for ARPS.
!
!          For this reason, it is not recommended to use EXT2ARPS for
!          ARPS to ARPS nest, but use ARPSINTRP instead. ARPSINTRP just
!          does interpolation of the ARPS grids and is most commonly
!          used to make smaller ARPS domains at higher resolution for nesting.
!          Because it is ARPS-to-ARPS all the assumptions about lateral
!          and vertical boundary conditions are fully known from the file
!          meta data and can be replicated in the output.
!                                                                     =*
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!    extdopt    Options for external data sources
!             = 0,   ARPS, default
!             = 1,   NMC RUC (Hybrid-B) data in GRIB (grid #87)
!             = 2,   NMC NAM data on grid #212 in either GRIB or GRIB2 format (grid #212).
!             = 3,   OLAPS data
!             = 4,   GEMPAK RUC data (not sure the size)
!             = 5,   GEMPAK ETA data (see also extdopt=10, not sure the size)
!             = 6,   COAMPS data
!             = 7,   NMC RUC AWIPS data in GRIB, grid #211
!             = 8,   NCEP/NCAR T62 Reanalysis 1 data on Gaussian grid in GRIB
!             = 9,   GEMPAK RUC-2 data
!             = 10,  GEMPAK ETA data (grid #104).
!             = 11,18, NCEP native coordinate RUC2 data in GRIB or GRIB2 format
!                    (grid #236, grid #252, grid #130 etc.)
!             = 12,19, NCEP isobaric RUC2 data in GRIB or GRIB2 format
!                    (grid #236, grid #252, grid #130 etc.)
!             = 13,  NCEP GFS global data on grid #3 in eihter GRIB or GRIB2 format (grid #3).
!             = 14,  NCEP AVN/GFS global data in GRIB (grid #2)
!             = 15,  NCEP-DOE Global Reanalysis 2 (grid #2. see,
!                    http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.ncep.reanalysis2.html)
!             = 16,  NMC 12km NAM data on grid #218 in either GRIB or GRIB2 format (grid #218).
!                    (tiles, see www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/research/tiles.218.html)
!             = 17,  NARR 32km North American Regional Reanalysis data (grid #221).
!                    see http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/rreanl/index.html.
!
!           NOTE: this option should read terrain height, land cover etc from
!                 an extra 32km NARR fixed field file, "AWIP32.fixed". It can be
!                 downloaded from http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/rreanl/.
!                 Users should put this file in the same directory as other
!                 NARR 32km "A" series GRIB data.
!
!             = 20,  NCEP GFS 0.5 x 0.5 degree global realtime analysis/forecast
!                    on grid #4 in either GRIB format or GRIB2 format. (grid #4)
!             = 21, The lastest Rapid Refresh and High-resolution rapid refresh (HRRR) data sets.
!                   (it is native RUC2 format defined on grid #130)
!             = 22, ECMWF data defined with GRIB table 128
!                   (for Shenzhen Project specifically and support both 0.25 and 0.125 resolution).
!             = 23, WRF ARW history data files in netCDF format.
!
!             = 33,  NCEP GFS 0.25 x 0.25 degree global realtime analysis/forecast
!                    on grid #4 in either GRIB format or GRIB2 format. 
!
!             >=50,  User defined
!
!             > 100, Sub region selected from  N.O.M.A.D.S. (NOAA Operational
!                    Model Archive Distribution System, see
!                    http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/). At present, only GFS 1x1
!                    data in grid #3 and NAM 12km data in grid #218 were
!                    implemented, i.e. extdopt = 113 or extdopt = 116. Other
!                    data sources can also be implemented with the same manner.
!
!          NOTE:   1. It is user's responsibility to ensure external sub region
!                     covering ARPS domain.
!                  2. All vertical levels are required.
!                  3. Refer to "include/gribcst.inc" for required variables.
!
!    extdfmt  = Flag for ARPS (external) input data format used when
!               extdopt=0. For definition, see description for "hdmpfmt". The followings are
!               special values used for external data other than ARPS data:
!
!               extdfmt =  0, Uses NCEP file name convention when extdopt = 2,11,13,16,17,20 etc.;
!                      extdopt = 2 : extdname//'.t'//ihr//'z.awip3d'//ifhr//'.tm00'
!                      extdopt = 11: extdname//'.t'//ihr//'z.bgrb13f',ifhr
!                                 or extdname//'.t'//ihr//'z.bgrb13anl'
!                      extdopt = 13: extdname//'.t'//ihr//'Z.pgrbf'//ifhr
!                      extdopt = 16: extdname//'.t'//ihr//'z.awip218',ifhr
!                      extdopt = 17: extdname//'_'//iyr//imo//iday//'_'//ihr,'00_000.grb'
!                      extdopt = 20: extdname//'.t'//ihr//'z.pgbf',ifhr
!
!               extdfmt =  1, Uses ARPS external file name convention (default)
!                      The file name is contructed based on extdname and extdtime below as
!                      extdname//'.YYYYMMDDHHfHF' where 'HF' is forecast hour and if it
!                      is larger than 99, it will occupy 3 characters.
!
!               extdfmt = 100, Use the file name downloaded from NOMADS directly. This is
!                      an experimental feature because there is no NOMADS naming convention
!                      defined anywhere. It was tested with NAM grid #218 only as this was
!                      recorded on Jan. 26, 2011.
!
!               extdfmt = 101, Reserved for CAPS internal use with SREF data sets.
!
!    dir_extd = The directory that contains the external data files
!               that are to be converted/processed.
!
!    extdname = Prefix string of external file name
!
!    nextdfil = The number of external data files for EXT2ARPS to
!               process.
!
!    extdtime = The time corresponding to the external data files.
!               The format is a concatenation of the inidate and
!               initime formats, plus forecast time information, namely:
!               extdtime(1) = 'yyyy-mm-dd.hh:mm:ss+hhh:mm:ss',
!               For example:
!               extdtime(1) = '1977-05-20.21:00:00+045:00:00'
!               represents 3 hr forecast fields starting from
!               21z, May 20 1977
!
!    iorder     Order of polynomial used for interpolation
!               = 1  Linear
!               = 2  Quadratic
!
!    intropt    Option indicating to interpolate perturbation or total
!               variables:
!               = 1  Interpolate perturbation variables and add to base
!                    sounding (default);
!               = 2  Interploate total variables (recommended for extdopt=0).
!
!    nsmooth    Number of smoothing passes after interpolation
!               1 (default) or 2 recommended.
!
!    ext_lbc    Option to apply lateral boundary conditions to the winds.
!               = 0  no boundary conditions applied;
!               = 1  apply zero-gradient boundary conditions (default).
!
!    ext_vbc    Option to apply vertical boundary conditions to w.
!               = 0  no boundary conditions applied;
!               = 1  apply boudary conditions specified by tbc & bbc to
!                    w (default).
!
!    exttrnopt  Terrain option for output grid:
!               = 0  use terrain specified by ternopt above (default);
!               = 1  interpolate terrain from original grid.
!               = 2  use terrain read in from file but merged to original
!                    grid at the boundaries (see also extntmrg).
!
!    extsfcopt  Option for near surface interpolation
!               = 0  use pressure levels (default);
!               = 1  use near surface fields available
!                    (simple interpolation - currently only valid for
!                    extdopt=2,11,12,13,16,17,18,19,20,21, and
!                    more work needed for extdopt = 7, 12, 51).
!
!    extntmrg   Number of zones over which to merge original and new terrain
!               at the bondaries (used when exttrnopt=2).
!
!    grdbasopt= Grdbas history file option
!             = 0, Never write out the "grdbas" file.  This is a big I/O
!                  saver if "t0" produces the file.  "Lbc" doesn't have to.
!             = 1, Only the first I/O operations writes a "grdbas" file
!                  output.  This is a big I/O saver if the files aren't
!                  which they normally aren't.  This is the default.
!             = 2, Always write the "grdbas" files.  This was the behavior
!                  in previous versions of the "ext2arps".
!
!    i2dfmt:    Write out 2D output (one file each field each time)
!               i2dfmt=0 no 2D output
!               i2dfmt=1 native binary 2D output
!               i2dfmt=3 HDF4 2D output
!               i2dfmt=7 NetCDF 2D output
!    outheader: Header of output file name for 2D fields (i2dfmt /=0)
!    
!---------------------------------------------------------------------=*
 
 &extdfile
   extdopt  = 33,
     extdfmt  = 0,
   dir_extd = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/initial/20150410/gfs',
   extdname = '15041000.gfs',
   nextdfil = 1,
   extdtime(1) = '2015-04-10.00:00:00+045:00:00',
 
   iorder  = 2,
   intropt = 1,
   nsmooth = 0,
 
   exttrnopt = 2,
     extntmrg = 7,
   extsfcopt = 1,
 
   ext_lbc = 1,
   ext_vbc = 1,
 
   grdbasopt = 2,
 
   i2dfmt = 0,
   outheader = 'data2d/nam.13082700.gfs',
 /
 
 
!======================================================================
!
! Additional parameters for program 3DVAR
!
!======================================================================
 
*----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! 3DVAR Parameters (Dimensioned by parameter npass)
! maxin : maxmum iteration number
! ipass : number of pass of recursive filter
! hradius  : horizontal influence radius in ( km)
! vradius_opt:   1: vertical influence radius in grid points;
!                2: vertical influence radius in unit of km.
! vradius: vertical influence radius
!
!---------------------------------------------------------------------=*
 
 &var_const
   maxin =         50,   50,   50,  50,
 /
 
 &var_refil
   ipass_filt  =     4,     4,    4,   4,
   hradius     = 200.0, 100.0, 25.0, 9.0,
   vradius_opt =     1,
   vradius     =     4,    4,    2,   2,
 /
 
!----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  chk_opt= 1  : check gradient
!  assim_opt= 1  : do analysis
!  cntl_var = 0  : 0= U, V and 1=stream function, velocity potential
!  cntl_var_rh = : 1= RH and 0=q
!
!----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &var_exprt
    chk_opt = 0,
    assim_opt= 1,
    cntl_var = 0,
    cntl_var_rh = 0,
 /
 
!----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! div_opt : divergence term
! wgt_div_h  : coefficient of horizontal divergent term (npass)
! wgt_div_v  : coefficient of vertical divergent term (npass)
!
!----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 &var_diverge
   div_opt = 1,
   wgt_div_h(1)=-1,wgt_div_h(2)=-1,wgt_div_h(3)=-1,wgt_div_h(4)=-1,
   wgt_div_v(1)=-1,wgt_div_v(2)=-1,wgt_div_v(3)=-1,wgt_div_v(4)=-1,
 /
 
 &var_smth
   smth_flag = 0,
   wgt_smth(1)=0.05,wgt_smth(2)=0.01,wgt_smth(3)=0.01,wgt_smth(4)=0.01,
 /
 
 &var_thermo
   thermo_opt = 0,
   wgt_thermo(1)=0.50,
   wgt_thermo(2)=0.20,
   wgt_thermo(3)=0.10,
   wgt_thermo(4)=0.10,
 /
*-======================================================================
!
!     SOIL_VEG_DATA  Additional namelist used by ARPSSFC program (not by
!                    ARPS) for the surface data pre-processing.
!
!       schmopt   Option of schemes to generate the distribution of soil
!                 and vegetation data set in ARPS domain.
!               = 0, Constant for the entire domain
!               = 1, One constant value in a user specified rectangular
!                    region (foreground) and another in the rest area
!                    (background)
!               = 2, Constant for the foreground region and
!                    real data for the background
!               = 3, Real data for the entire domain files
!               = 4, Use real data for stype and vtype (retrieved from files
!                    stypfl and vtypfl).  Lai, veg & roufns are derived
!                    from vegetation type using a look-up table (in
!                    file lkupfl).
!
!       sdatopt   Option to select soil texture data sets
!               = 1, select STATSGO soil texture data set. The
!                    compressed data set can be obtained from CAPS ftp
!                    directory:
!
!  ftp://ftp.caps.ou.edu/ftp/pub/ARPS/arps40.data/arpssfc.data/soil_1km.data.gz
!
!               = 2, select GED soil type data set. The compressed data
!                    sets can be obtained from CAPS ftp directory:
!
!  ftp://ftp.caps.ou.edu/ftp/pub/ARPS/arps40.data/arpssfc.data/whsoil.data.Z
!                                                             owe14d.data.Z
!                                                             ndvi90##.data.Z
!                    where ## represents two-digit of month number.
!
!                = 3, 30s global top layer soil type data set
!
!  ftp://aftp.fsl.noaa.gov/divisions/frd-laps/WRFSI/Geog_Data/soiltype_top_30s/
!
!       vdatopt   Option to select vegetation type data sets
!               = 1, select North American 1km data set.
!               = 2, select GED vegetation type data set.
!               = 3, 30s USGS global landuse data set
!
!  NOTE: for option sdatopt == 3 or vdatopt == 3, fstypfl or fvtypfl specifies
!        the directory name which holds 30s top layer soil type tiles or 30s
!        landuse data tiles.
!
!  ftp://aftp.fsl.noaa.gov/divisions/frd-laps/WRFSI/Geog_Data/landuse_30s/
!
!       ndatopt   Option to select NDVI data sets
!               = 1, select North American 1km data set.
!               = 2, select GED NDVI data set.
!
!       vfrcopt   Option to select the vegetation fraction data set
!
!               = 0, DeFault built-in table conversion.
!
!               = 1, select NESDIS green vegetation fraction data sets.
!                    0.144 x 0.144 degree resolution.
!                    The compressed data set can be obtained from the CAPS
!                    ftp directory:
!
! ftp://ftp.caps.ou.edu/pub/ARPS/arps40.data/arpssfc.data/gvegf.data.tar.gz
!
!       nsmthsl   Number of smoothing passes applied to veg, ln(roufns),
!                 and lai.
!
!       fgbgni  = Beginning index (i) in x-dir of the foreground region.
!       fgendi  = Ending    index (i) in x-dir of the foreground region.
!       fgbgnj  = Beginning index (j) in y-dir of the foreground region.
!       fgendj  = Ending    index (j) in y-dir of the foreground region.
!
!       fgstyp  = Soil type for the foreground.
!       fgvtyp  = Vegetation type for the foreground.
!       fglai   = Leaf Area Index for the foreground.
!       fgrfns  = Surface roughness for the foreground.
!       fgveg   = Vegetation fraction for the foreground.
!
!       bgstyp  = Soil type for the background.
!       bgvtyp  = Vegetation type for the background.
!       bglai   = Leaf Area Index for the background.
!       bgrfns  = Surface roughness for the background.
!       bgveg   = Vegetation fraction for the background.
!
!       stypout = Flag for output of soil type.
!       vtypout = Flag for output of vegetation type.
!       vfrcdr  = directory name for the vegetataion fraction data file.
!       laiout  = Flag for output of Leaf Area Index.
!       rfnsout = Flag for output of surface roughness.
!       vegout  = Flag for output of vegetation fraction.
!       ndviout = Flag for output of NDVI.
!
!       drawval = Option for NCARG to draw integer value at each grid point
!
!       stypfl  = File name of soil classes.
!       vtypfl  = File name of vegetation classes.
!       ndvifl  = File name of NDVI.
!       lkupfl  = File name of look-up table (for schmopt=4).
!
!       Note: The soil and vegetation data are stored in CAPS ftp site,
!             ftp://ftp.caps.ou.edu/pub/ARPS/arps40.data/arpssfc.data/
!
!---------------------------------------------------------------------=*
 
 &soil_veg_data
   schmopt = 3,
 
   sdatopt = 3,
     fstypfl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/soiltype_top_30s',
     bstypfl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/soiltype_top_30s',
 
   vdatopt = 3,
     fvtypfl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/landuse_30s',
     bvtypfl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/owe14d_10min.data',
 
   ndatopt = 2,
     fndvifl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/namay92ndl_1km.img',
     bndvifl  = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/ndvi9005_10min.data',
 
   vfrcopt = 1,
     vfrcdr   = '/home/arpsuser/arps5.3.3/data/arpssfc.data/',
 
   lkupfl   = 'sfc_winter.tbl',
 
   nsmthsl = 3,
 
   fgbgni  = 1,
   fgendi  = 67,
   fgbgnj  = 1,
   fgendj  = 33,
 
   fgstyp  = 13,
   bgstyp  = 3,
 
   fgvtyp  = 14,
   bgvtyp  = 10,
 
   fglai   = 0.00,
   bglai   = 0.31,
 
   fgrfns  = 0.001,
   bgrfns  = 0.02,
 
   fgveg   = 0.000,
   bgveg   = 0.3,
 
   stypout = 1,
   vtypout = 1,
   laiout  = 1,
   rfnsout = 1,
   vegout  = 1,
   ndviout = 1,
 
   drawval = 0,
 /
 
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------
!
! End of input file
!
!-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Räumliche Auflösung

Die äussere Domäne wird auf 219*219 Gridpunkten in 50 Höhenschichten gerechnet. Die Gridgröße beträgt 1 km und die mittlere vertikale Auflösung 300 m.

Zeitintegration

Da ARPS (wie die meisten numerischen Atmosphären-Modelle) eine Kombination von “langsamen” Integrationsschema für die linearen Navier-Stokes Gleichungen (z.B. advektive Transporte) und “schnellem” Schema für die nichtlineare Austauschvorgänge (momentum fluxes) beinhaltet ist die Kombnation der beiden Zeitschritte und das verwendete Schema von zentraler Bedeutung. Für jede Domain muss eine rechenkostengünstige Kombination von grossem und kleinem Zeitschritt inkl. Dämpfungsfilter und vertikaler Schichten ermittelt werden, die gleichzeitig realitätsnahe Ergebnisse liefert. Dies ist natürlich je nach verwendeter physikalischer Parametrisierungschemata, den Boden- und Vegetationsdaten, den Randbedingungen und vor allem der jeweiligen Morphometrie eine komplexe Kombination von Möglichkeiten. Seit kurzem bietet ARPS für die Zeit-Integrationen neben dem “einfachen” leapfrog das Runge Kutta Schema (RK3) Schema an. Generell ist das RK3 vor allem für nicht lineare Prozesse geeigneter und bleibt bei größeren Zeitschritten stabil. Entscheidend ist die Kombination aus RK3 und der notwendigen Dämpfung der Wellenfortpflanzung (wave proagation) für Energie und Entropie um die numerische Stabilität zu erreichen.

Das RK3 Schema ist dem leapfrog für die gewählte Fragestellung hinsichtlich der Stabilität deutlich überlegen kostet jedoch mehr Rechenzeit. Für die hier vorgestellte Modellierung wird das RK3 Schema für alle Domains verwendet.

Vertikales Profil

Das vertikale Profil wird in der folgenden Auflösung gerechnet:

 

Strahlungsberechnung

Turbulenzberechnung

Bodenmodell

Wolkenphysik

Validierung

Ergebnisse

Diskussion

Referenzen

projekte/meteo/complexterrainwindfield.txt · Last modified: 2018/12/23 19:46 (external edit)